Presentation on theme: "6. Penilaian Kurikulum The Meaning of Evaluation 1.Evaluation is a process or group of processes by which evaluators gather data in order to make decisions."— Presentation transcript:
6. Penilaian Kurikulum The Meaning of Evaluation 1.Evaluation is a process or group of processes by which evaluators gather data in order to make decisions 2.Worthen and Sanders define evaluation as “ the formal determination of the quality, effectiveness, or value of a program, product, project, process, objective or curriculum. Evaluation includes inquiry and and judgment methods: a) “determining standards for judging quality and deciding whether those standards should be relative or absolute; b) collect relevant information; and c) applying the standards to determine quality”
Penilaian Kurikulum The Meaning of Evaluation 3. Daniel Stufflebeam has defined evaluation as the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternatives.
Penilaian Kurikulum Approaches to Evaluation/Pendekatan Penilaian 1.Essentially, evaluation consists of gathering and combining data in relation to a weighted set of goals or scales so as to allow people to make judgment about worth. 2.In general, evaluation focuses on and results in decisions in one or more of three areas: a. decision about the curriculum, the subject matter, as to whether to maintain the curriculum, revise and improve the curriculum, or to replace the existing curriculum with a new one; b. decisions about individuals, primarily the teachers and students, which focus on instruction and learning, c). decisions about administrative regulation, which focus on the existing management of the school and its program, to determine whether the existing school organization should be maintained or reformed. Also, part of this focus is centering attention on the school environment and the community environment within which the school exists, what Schwab calls the milieu and Goodlad calls the ecosystem.
Penilaian Kurikulum Scientific and Humanistic Approaches to Evaluation Lee Cronbach had identified the scientific and humanistic approaches to evaluation as opposite extremes on an evaluation continuum.
Penilaian Kurikulum Scientific Approach Persons in this camp tend to concentrate their efforts on the learners. Data, frequently in the form of test scores, are employed to compare students’ achievement in different situations. Information collected is quantitative, so it can be analyzed statistically. Most scientific approaches to evaluation draw on methods that have been used by physical scientists.
Penilaian Kurikulum Humanistic/naturalistic Approach Data collected in a way that differ significantly from that found in a scientific evaluation. The data gathered in a naturalistic investigation are more qualitative than quantitative in nature. The evaluator engages in what are called “thick” descriptions of actual incidents that were observed during the evaluation efforts. Data gained from interviews and discussions with participants are included in the evaluation. Patterns observed from the many observations form much of the data for analysis.
Penilaian Formatif & Sumatif Penilaian Formatif Formative evaluation encompasses /includes those activities undertaken to improve an intended program. It is carried out both the development of a new program and the implementation of the program. In the curriculum development phase, formative evaluation furnishes evidence that will direct decisions that can be made about how to revise a program while it is being developed. Formative evaluation takes place at a number of specified points during the curriculum development process. It provides the opportunity for the evaluators to modify, reject or accept the program as it is evolving.
Penilaian Sumatif Summative evaluation aims at getting the total picture of the quality of a produced and then taught curriculum. When applied to a newly developed curriculum, summative evaluation is usually undertaken after the project has been completely developed and after it has been implemented schoolwide or districtwide.
Penilaian Sumatif Once implemented, this type of evaluation is used to determine whether students have been successful in obtaining the final goals of the curriculum. Have the students met the educational standards of the school or state. Likewise, it is employed to judge whether teachers have been successful in meeting the minimum accountability standards. Overall, it asks the question, “Has the curriculum worked” The name summative has been applied because this type of evaluation obtains evidence about the “summed” effects of the various components or units in a particular curriculum