2 Nonvascular Plant definition A group of plants that do not have a vascular system(xylem and phloem)☞Xylem: a vascular tissue that gets water and nutrients upward from the root☞Phloem: a vascular tissue that conducts sugars and metabolic products downward from the leaves
3 Therefore, Non-vascular plants’ nutrients and water simply move to the plants’ body by cell. ☞water can move in this way as long as the plants’ body is not too much thick.
4 How do they get nutrients and water? They receive water from rainfall and most of their nutrients are dissolved in this water.Rhizoid also helps to take those nutrients.Gases simply diffuse across the plant surface but liverworts also have pores which are permanently open for gas exchange. Certain mosses also have stomata on their capsules
5 Characteristics Have small reduced leaves No vascular tissues, true roots, and flowerDo not have seed; so plants are reproduced by spores or flagellated cells that travel through water.Grow best in damp, shaded conditionSmaller in size
6 Vascular Nonvascular Has a Vascular system yes no Has true roots, and leavesUses spores to reproduceCan reproduce sexuallyCan reproduce asexuallyCan grow largeHas flowerNeeds water to reproduceWrite an example.fernmoss
7 ReproductionAlternation of Generation: the plant processes two stages during its life cycle, alternating between a diploid (2n) and haploid (n).
9 The haploid stage is called Gametophyte Gametophyte: the gamete-producing plants.The gametophytes have different female and male reproductive organs-Archegonia and Antheridia.
10 Archegonia produce eggs/ Antheridia produce sperm Sperm(n) cell moves and when a sperm cell fertilizes inside the archegonia, a diploid zygote(spore) is formedWater is required in the cycle because sperm must travel through the water to reach the eggs.The zygote divides by meiosis and eventually develops into a mature sporophyte(2n).
11 The diploid stage is called the sporophyte. Spore: a single reproductive cell that is protected by a hard, watertight covering. It can be moved through the air.Sporophyte: This makes and release spores into the environment where they can reproduce.Spores will germinate and grow into the haploid gametophyte.
12 Asexual ReproductionIt also reproduce asexually if a piece of gametophyte stage plant breaks off and settles in an appropriate environment.It is less common way to reproduce
14 Bryophyta (Mosses)Structure: Stalk, Capsule, Rhizoid, Stem, and Leaf
15 Bryophyta (Mosses) Respiration: Mitochondria and Photosynthesis In the reproduction, as the spore germinates, it develops into a thin, filamentous stage called a protonema.They do not grow very large.Mosses are actually made of many tiny, dark green plants.
17 Hepatophyta (liverworts) Structure: Thallus, Rhizoid, Gemma cup, and Receptacle
18 Hepatophyta (liverworts) Small, green, and terrestrial plantsSome liverworts may also reproduce asexually by bundles of tissue called gemma. In many liverworts, gemmae develop in small cup like structures called gemma cups.Mostly found in moist environments and tend to be less resistant to desiccation.
20 Anthocerophyta-hornworts Hornwort refers to the slender, upright sporophyte surrounded in the thallus-like gametophyte.It is a submerged plantThere is a horn shaped sporophyte that grows.Single large chloroplast in each cell