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Middle Ages/Feudalism Review

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1 Middle Ages/Feudalism Review

2 Feudalism Definition of Feudalism: “A social system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and the use of land in return”

3 Feudalism Discovery Ed- Feudalism
Small kingdoms, called fiefs, developed throughout Europe Fiefs divided people into certain groups

4 Kings It was believed that God chose kings to rule the land
Because there was too much land for the king to govern by himself, he granted land to his allies to control In return for the land, the landowners (Dukes and Earls) would send knights to serve in the king’s army

5 Nobles/Lords Nobles spent most of their time trying to conquer new lands or protecting their own land Clergy (people working in the church) had a lot of wealth and power Nobles and lords were expected to help protect the land for the king if it was threatened They were also in charge of protecting serfs and peasants

6 Knights A knight was a professional warrior
Knights were vassals. This means they received land in return for protecting their noble or king’s land They trained from a very early age Knights are expected to follow the code of chivalry. This means they were supposed to be brave, fair, and treat others with respect

7 Serfs/Peasants Provided labor in exchange for land to live on and protection They were poor and lived in small huts in poor conditions Serfs could never earn enough money and were in a constant cycle of poverty Serfs had little rights and were not allowed to leave the land

8 Middle Ages- Comes from the term Medieval, which is Latin for middle and age
Describes a time period in Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire and before the Renaissance (500 CE CE)

9 Fall of the Western Roman Empire
After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, small groups and tribes battled for control of Europe

10 Dark Ages The Middle Ages are also known as the Dark Ages
This is a period of time of intellectual and economic regression that occurred after the fall of the Western Roman Empire People did not make many scientific discoveries, there was little education, and there wasn’t much money for average people

11 The Bubonic Plague Brought to Europe in the 1200s by Mongol invaders
A very deadly disease, it killed two-thirds of the people who got it within 4 days It spread by fleas on rodents (rats) and by personal contact (touching, sneezing, coughing)

12 Spread through Europe By the 1300s, the disease was traveling from the port cities of Europe along trade routes throughout the continent The disease slowly spread to Spain, France, England, Scandinavia, and Russia

13 Deaths In all, it is estimated that the Plague killed one-third of Europe’s total population Half of the people in the city of London died Reports indicate over 1,000 people a day died in 1350

14 Poor Hygiene People in Europe at the time lacked proper sanitation and hygiene Threw their garbage and waste into the streets This led to a lot of rats, which continued to spread the disease

15 Depopulation The Bubonic Plague wiped out much of Europe’s population and workforce Less farmers were able to harvest crops Trade decreased throughout Europe because there weren’t as many merchants Less craftspeople to make the everyday goods people needed Because there were so few workers, the workers that did remain received higher wages Because of the higher wages, many people in Europe started to leave their farms for the cities

16 What are the Crusades? A series of military campaigns by Christians from Europe vs. Muslims from the Middle East Battling over control over the Holy Land and the sacred city of Jerusalem The Muslims were in control Started in 1095, when Pope Urban II urged that Christians from Europe should unite and capture the Holy Land from the Muslims Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholics unite

17 Basic Facts and Outcome
Lasted from 1095 C.E. – 1291 C.E. (about 200 years) There were four major Crusades and many more smaller military conflicts Although the Christians controlled the Holy Land for a brief time, they ultimately failed in their goal to permanently control these lands

18 1st Crusade (1096-1099): French troops captured Jerusalem in 1099
1st Crusade ( ): French troops captured Jerusalem in Most troops went home after the capture 2nd Crusade ( ): Kings of France and Germany decide they need to send more troops so Jerusalem does not get recaptured by the Muslims

19 3rd Crusade ( ): Saladin captures the city of Jerusalem in In response, Richard the Lionheart leads an expedition to retake Jerusalem. He wins major battles, but does not win back Jerusalem 4th Crusade ( ): Led by the Byzantine Empire to recapture Jerusalem, it failed

20 After the Crusades These wars caused bitter feeling between Muslims and Christians for many centuries Some of this can still be seen today The military campaigns greatly expanded trade throughout the region Mostly cities along the Mediterranean coast

21 The Rise of Kingdoms in Europe

22 Economy Begins to Expand
During the Late Middle Ages (1000 CE – 1300 CE), the economy of Europe gets stronger Farms begin to produce more crops Population increases Merchants begin to trade extra goods with one another Some merchants begin to travel far distances to trade goods

23 Economy Continues to Expand
Trade routes are developed along major rivers Towns begin to grow and roads connect towns

24 Economy Continues to Expand
Peasants and serfs are able to start saving money and leave their manor Many peasants and serfs become craftspeople and merchants Some start their own farms near towns where food is needed

25 Feudalism Weakens Because many serfs and peasants are beginning to leave their manors, the feudalism system becomes weaker

26 Kings become more Powerful
Kings became more powerful. People agreed to pay taxes in return for protection and government Kings are able to afford the powerful armies and the best weapons Lords and knights begin to lose their power

27 Nation-States Emerge 4 major kingdoms developed into nation-states:
England France Spain Russia

28 The Magna Carta Magna Carta- Brainpop
The Magna Carta came about when King John angered many nobles with a set of laws they believed were unfair He agreed to lower taxes, but did not Many believed King John was abusing his power as king In 1215, the nobles, barons, and church officials rebelled against King John and forced him to sign an agreement. This agreement listed the rights of nobles and limited the power of kings

29 The Hundred Years War Lasted from 1337-1453
A series of short wars between England and France over control of land The English won major battles because they had better weapons, mainly the longbow

30 The Hundred Years War Joan of Arc was a peasant girl who said she had visions from God to drive the English out of France Led by Joan of Arc, the French rallied and pushed the English back. However, she was captured and killed After her death, the French started using cannons and were able to drive the English all the way out of France

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