Presentation on theme: "Government Intervention in the Market"— Presentation transcript:
1Government Intervention in the Market A2 EconomicsGovernment Intervention in the Market
2Aims and Objectives Aim: Understand government intervention in the marketObjectives:Define government/market failureExplain the causes of market failureAnalyse government policies to correct mf.Evaluate government policies to correct mf.
3Starter Define market failure. How many causes of market failure can you think of?
4Causes of Market Failure Negative externalitiesPositive externalitiesPublic goodsMerit goodsDemerit goodsImperfect competitionImmobility of factors of productionEquity issues (poverty and inequality)
5Productive and Allocative Inefficiency Productive Inefficiency: when firms are not producing at minimum average total costAllocative Inefficiency: when resources are not used to produce the goods and services wanted by consumers.
6Government Intervention Methods Government Legislation and RegulationDirect provision of goods/servicesFiscal policyImproving information
7Government Failure Causes Political self-interestImperfect informationUnintended consequencesRegulatory capture
8Recap: Externalities & Market Failure The problem created by externalities is that too much or too little is being produced.The free market fails to produce an efficient allocation of resources.When governments intervene they wish to ‘internalise the externality’.
9Positive Externalities Causing Environmental Market Failure MSC = marginal social costMPC = marginal private costMPB = marginal private benefitMSB = marginal social benefitMEB = Marginal external benefitsConsider case of trees being planted.Assume only positive externalities.Therefore MPC = MSC
10Positive Externalities Causing Market Failure Tree planting produces positive externalities and external benefits.Means the MSB is greater than the MPB. (Shown by curves).Maximise private benefit for forestry, they plant Q1 trees where MPC=MPB.However it is socially optimal at Q2 where MSC=MSB.Market fails as under production and under consumption occurs shown by Q2 minus Q1.
11Negative Externalities Causing Environmental Market Failure MSC = marginal social costMPC = marginal private costMPB = marginal private benefitMSB = marginal social benefitMEC = Marginal external costsConsider case of coal burning power station.Assume only negative externalities.Therefore MPB = MSB
12Negative Externalities Causing Market Failure Because pollution is discharged during production the MSC is higher than the MPC.Power station maximises private benefit by producing Q1, where MPC=MPB.Socially optimal level of output is producing Q2 where MSC=MSB.Market forces over produce electricity by amount Q1 minus Q2.Market fails because the power station has produced too much electricity.
13Government Intervention to Correct Environmental Market Failure Tax the polluterIncreasing private costs of productionIncentivise producer to move towards MSC.Reduce NE.E.g. Congestion chargingTax Per Unit
14Government Intervention to Correct Environmental Market Failure - Problems In groups decide reasons as to why using an environmental tax would be problematic.
15Government Intervention to Correct Environmental Market Failure - Problems Difficult to place a monetary value on the environment and externalities. Therefore problems setting monetary value to tax.Difficult for gov to reduce pollution since they cannot be sure how firms and consumer would react to price and cost changes.
16Government Intervention to Correct Environmental Market Failure - Problems Imposing taxes on demerit goods may affect poorer in society more, who consume more demerit goods. Widen inequalities in long run.May reduce international competitiveness or encourage firms to move to a country where there are no environmental taxes e.g. India.
17Government Intervention to Correct Environmental Market Failure Regulate the markets heavily, setting pollution quotas.Create a market, e.g. Pollution permitsRaises money for government and extends property rights.
18PlenaryHow could these government intervention methods result in government failure?