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Basic Genetics *. View video at:

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1 Basic Genetics *

2 View video at:

3 * ▪Mendel stated that physical traits are inherited as “particles” ▪Mendel did not know that the “particles” were actually Chromosomes & DNA Particulate Inheritance

4 Genetic Terminology ▪Trait - any characteristic that can be passed from parent to offspring (a genetically determined characteristic or condition) ▪Heredity - passing of traits from parent to offspring ▪Genetics - study of heredity *

5 Types of Genetic Crosses ▪Monohybrid cross - cross involving a single trait e.g. flower color ▪Dihybrid cross - cross involving two traits e.g. flower color & plant height *

6 Punnett Square Used to help solve genetics problems *

7 Genetic Terms ▪Alleles – forms or versions of a gene ▪The Gene is for pea color and the alleles are green and yellow ▪Usually two or more alleles for a particular gene ▪Dominant – the dominant trait is expressed as long as one dominant allele is present (R) ▪Recessive – trait is only expressed when there are two copies of the recessive allele (r) *

8 More Terminology ▪Genotype - gene combination for a trait, the alleles an individual has (RR, Rr, rr) ▪Phenotype - the physical expression of the genotype (red, white) *

9 Genotype & Phenotype in Flowers * Genotype of alleles: R = red flowerr = yellow flower All genes occur in pairs, so 2 alleles affect a characteristic Possible combinations are: GenotypesRR Rrrr PhenotypesRED RED YELLOW

10 Genotypes can be… ▪Homozygous - Having the same alleles at a particular gene locus on homologous chromosomes (RR or rr) ▪Heterozygous – Having different alleles at a particular gene locus on homologous chromosomes (Rr); also called hybrid *

11 Monohybrid Crosses *

12 P 1 Monohybrid Cross → F 1 Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Roundr – Wrinkled Cross: Round seeds x Wrinkled seeds RR x rr * R R rr Rr Genotype: Rr Phenotype: Round Genotypic Ratio: All alike Phenotypic Ratio: All alike

13 P 1 Monohybrid Cross Review ▪Homozygous dominant x Homozygous recessive ▪Offspring (F 1 generation) are all Heterozygous (hybrids) ▪Genotypic & Phenotypic ratio is 1, the genotypes are the same, the phenotypes are the same. *

14 F 1 Monohybrid Cross → F 2 Trait: Seed Shape Alleles: R – Roundr – Wrinkled Cross: Round seeds x Round seeds Rr x Rr * R r rR RR rrRr Genotype: RR, Rr, rr Phenotype: Round & wrinkled G.Ratio: 1:2:1 P.Ratio: 3:1

15 F 1 Monohybrid Cross Review ▪Heterozygous x heterozygous ▪Offspring (F 2 generation):25% Homozygous dominant RR50% Heterozygous Rr25% Homozygous Recessive rr ▪Genotypic ratio is 1:2:1 ▪Phenotypic Ratio is 3:1 *

16 Mendel’s Laws *

17 Law of Dominance * In a cross of parents that are pure for contrasting traits, only one form of the trait will appear in the next generation. All the offspring will be heterozygous and express only the dominant trait. RR x rr yields all Rr (round seeds)

18 Law of Segregation During the formation of gametes (eggs or sperm), the two alleles responsible for a trait separate from each other. Alleles for a trait are then "recombined" at fertilization, producing the genotype for the traits of the offspring. *

19 * Applying the Law of Segregation

20 Alleles for different traits are distributed to sex cells (& offspring) independently of one another. This law can be illustrated using dihybrid crosses. * Law of Independent Assortment

21 Dihybrid Cross A breeding experiment that tracks the inheritance of two traits. Each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation oHow to calculate number of gametes: 2 n (n = # of heterozygote traits) *

22 Dihybrid Cross Traits: Seed shape & Seed color Alleles: R round r wrinkled Y yellow y green * RrYy x RrYy RY Ry rY ry All possible gamete combinations

23 Dihybrid Cross * RYRyrYry RY Ry rY ry

24 Dihybrid Cross * RRYY RRYy RrYY RrYy RRYy RRyy RrYy Rryy RrYY RrYy rrYY rrYy RrYy Rryy rrYy rryy Round/Yellow: 9 Round/green: 3 wrinkled/Yellow: 3 wrinkled/green: 1 9:3:3:1 phenotypic ratio RYRyrYry RY Ry rY ry

25 Summary of Mendel’s laws * LAW PARENT CROSS OFFSPRING DOMINANCETT x tt tall x short 100% Tt tall SEGREGATION Tt x Tt tall x tall 75% tall 25% short INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT RrGg x RrGg round & green x round & green 9/16 round seeds & green pods 3/16 round seeds & yellow pods 3/16 wrinkled seeds & green pods 1/16 wrinkled seeds & yellow pods

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