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Gaius JULIUS CAESAR De Bello Gallico.

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1 Gaius JULIUS CAESAR De Bello Gallico

2 Caesar’s life Born: 100 BCE Died: March 15, 44 BCE
12th of Quinctilis (the month later renamed July) to a family that claimed the descent from Iulus (Ascanius)

3 Influences on caesar MARIUS: SULLA: Consul – 7 times (unheard of)
Supported politicians who opposed the wealthy and supported the common people Married to Caesar’s aunt, Julia Reformed Roman Army to include lower class SULLA: General of army Dictator in Rome (when Caesar was a teenager) – marched on the city twice to win “supreme authority” Supporter of the wealthy – suppress the commoners (poor) Caesar’s aunt, Julia, was married to Marius Caesar himself grew up in a time of political turmoil – this was his example

4 OPTIMAS v. POPULARIS Optimates: worked to achieve consensus in the Senate Sulla Populares: worked around the Senate to pass laws in the people’s courts Marius Caesar relates more to the Marian faction

5 SULLA Proscription Lists
Second Triumvirate (including Octavian!) Caesar had this example in his life at an early age Caesar was connected with Marius – hostile to Sulla – and had to flee Rome to escape the list Caesar was told by Sulla to divorce his wife (a family enemy to Sulla) and Caesar refused – he was added to the proscription list Sulla dies in 78 BC – Caesar was free to return to rome

6 Caesar’s youth “corona civica” – civic crown was given to men who saved the lives of others in battle Sulla dies in 78 BC – Caesar can return to Rome

7 EDUCATION 77 BC: Rhodes – study rhetoric (Apollonius)
Cicero studied with Apoloonius too 75 BC: Kidnapped by pirates: ransom collected and paid Caesar captured these pirates and crucified them Shows status of young Roman men – Caesar is growing up in the upper class with wealth and power and surrounds himself with people who have the same Supposedly, the pirates asked for a price of 20 – and Caesar laughed and said that was way too low, and he was worth at least 50

63 BC: pontifex maximus (a title later given to Octavian as well) Scandalous because he was so young – defeated many older men 61 BC: Governor of Spain Owed so much money, but was bailed out by Crassus Paid off debts with victories in Spain 59 BC: Ran for CONSUL – with aid of Pompey and Crassus Pontifex maximus election – shows his political talents Spain governorship – gave him experience in military command Did not have enough political power to win consulship without powerful friends

9 1st triumvirate Formed around 60 BC to aid Caesar’s election to Consulship CAESAR, POMPEY, CRASSUS Julia (Caesar’s daughter) married Pompey (Julia dies in childbirth 54 BC) Bibulus – Caesar’s partner in consulship in 59 BC (lame duck)

10 GAUL 58 BC: Caesar left for Gaul (~9 years)
Caesar was only supposed to be in Gaul for 5 years, but extended to finish his campaign 50 BC: Conquest of Gaul was complete Flooded markets with salves, dispensed political favors, won devotion of soldiers, showed off incredible wealth, army size grew

11 End of 1st TRIUMVIRATE Julia + Pompey – Julia dies in 54 BC in childirth Crassus is killed in Parthia in 53 BC Iraq and Iran Pompey began to align himself with the Senate who opposed Caesar – wanted to ruin Caesar’s career Caesar was asked by Senate to return to Rome as a “private citizen” and without his army – he refused Was pompey jealous of caesar’s power? Did he want to become sole ruler? Needed to get caesar out of the picture Returning to rome would have been poltical suicide for caesar – Pompey and friends would have demolished his career

Caesar could not be prosecuted by his enemies in the Senate if he was “consul” Caesar’s enemies made it clear that if he returned to Rome as a “private citizen,” he would be prosecuted, so he wanted to run for consul “in absentia”

13 Alea iacta est 49 BC: Since he was branded an outlaw by the Senate, Caesar marched on Rome with his armies – crossed the Rubicon Declared an automatic war Pompey’s armies were in Spain, so he retreated there Caesar continued to Rome and declared himself dictator 48 BC: Caesar led his army to Spain to meet Pompey and the “Optimates” at the Battle of Pharsalus Caesar wins, pardons Roman citizens, Pompey flees to Egypt The die has been cast – there is no turning back once he brought his army out of his own province

14 Caesar in EGYPT At this time, Cleopatra (20-21 years old) was struggling for power and the throne in Egypt Caesar saw her as a useful ally and cooperated to help her 47 BC: Caesar left Egypt with Cleopatra in place as a “client queen” and loyal to the Roman Empire Settled some disturbances in Asia Minor (Zela): “veni vidi vici”

15 POLITICAL POWER 46 – 45 BC: Caesar set up his power in Rome
Did not use the Senate, just announced his decisions Appointed magistrates Squashed rebellions and gave himself “triumphs” Coins in his likeness Statues (like the gods!) Purple and gold toga Laurel wreath (golden) Carried in a sedan chair

16 Dictator perpetuus 44 BC: Dictator for life
Declared that he would avenge the death of Crassus in Parthia (he was set to leave for Parthia on March 18, 44 BC) Did Caesar want to be king? Refused a “diadem” presented by Antony at a public ceremony MARCH BC: Killed by republicans in the Senate Benefits of dictator – did not need to run for re-election “convenient” – he could dictate who had what post

17 BENEFITS Tried to relieve the debt Reformed the calendar (July)

18 Caesar and his enemies Forgiveness – did not use a proscription list
Showed mercy (clemency) to those who opposed him Killed by those who wanted to restore the “republic”

19 Caesar’s legacy Adopted great-nephew as his heir, Octavian
Caesar was deified after his death = every emperor would have this happen in the future GAUL INFLUENCE Gauls became Roman – speak Latin US INFLUENCE Fear of imitators haunted the framers of US Constitution (unchecked power) Octavian is son of Caesar’s sister’s daughter US framers built in checks and balances into system to stop one man from gaining too much power

20 Rome after caesar’s death
Senate failed to reassert itself Second Triumvirate took over (Antony, Octavian, Lepidus) Spiral of civil war until 31 BC and rise of Augustus

21 caesar, THE author De Analiga Commentarii de bello Gallico
Does not survive – Latin grammar Commentarii de bello Gallico First seven books composed by Caesar Last book by Aulus Hirtius (written after Caesar’s death) Civil War (three books) Supplemented with books about Egypt, Africa, and Spain (uncertain authorship)

22 COMMENTARII Official reports sent to the Senate, written by governors and generals : “sets of notes or records” VERSUS Historia : highly elaborated literary account Genre is well suited to convey what purports to be a straightforward record of Caesar’s conquests What we read today are not just notes, but “reports of reports”

23 Why COMmentarii? Wanted to make it appear as if he were sharing his reports with ALL Roman people, not just the Senate Absent from Rome for 9 years – these would have been devoured by Romans who were looking for updated news or gossip Report “Caesar’s Side” in this conquest Caesar had control of what was presented, how it was presented, and when No details of how published, when published, etc.

24 Caesar’s style Logical and clear – no obscure vocab: “plain”
Lacks complex sentences Writes as an “observer” without passion or emotion THIRD PERSON Why would Caesar be speaking to them directly when he was so far away in Gaul? Focus on actions Seems “objective”

25 Caesar’s motivation Reputation Public career Life

26 Image of caesar

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