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DESIGNING VIDEO DISTRIBUTION WITH THE DMX ProFusion M5 platform

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Presentation on theme: "DESIGNING VIDEO DISTRIBUTION WITH THE DMX ProFusion M5 platform"— Presentation transcript:

1 DESIGNING VIDEO DISTRIBUTION WITH THE DMX ProFusion M5 platform

2 Overview: Video System Design
Before beginning a video distribution design for the ProFusion M5, there are few things to consider when it comes to video distribution. The very easy and not too expensive. The very hard and very expensive. These conditions have been a constant undercurrent in our industry. Furthermore, technology is changing so rapidly that Engineers and Designers must constantly adapt to the relentless turnover in technology. Plasma and LCD displays are but one example. Another sweeping revision closely related to our industry is coming in Feb FCC rule changes will require all OTA broadcast TV programs to transition from the nearly 70 year old analog format to a digital format. This new format has been coined “DTV”. Confusion with the term “HDTV” will surely abound. This format change will impact the commercial industry to some extent. Residential consumers using OTA antennas will be most affected. Simply stated, understanding new technologies as DMX Engineers and Designers will allow us the edge and advantage over our competitors. In the past 5 to 7 years, a paradigm shift involving the technology employed in audio and visual systems has taken place. A/V equipment manufacturers are rapidly transitioning from the “old school” 100% analog systems to fully digital platforms. While this is of enormous benefit to a/v systems Designer and especially the Customer, it is not without its own set of needs and precautions. The ProFusion M5 is a computing device. All conventions associated with provision of clean and continuous a/c line power apply. The use of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) is highly recommended. At the very least, the ProFusion M5 must be connected to a non switched a/c line supply with some type of rudimentary EMI/RFI/spike protection. The end user should be instructed to shut down the M5 by using the Standby button on the front panel.

3 Overview: Video System Design (Cont’d)
Spike and surge protection is also highly recommended for transmission of a/v signals via CAT5e. This is especially true where the cabling is routed underground or in conjunction with other structured cabling networks. Spike/surge suppressors for LAN network cabling are an excellent choice. Such devices are designed so as not to interfere with the high speed transmission of data. Consequently, they pose no adverse affects to the comparatively slow speed of a/v signals. It is important to note that the operating voltages of a/v signals may be higher than those of data. Careful consideration of the clamping voltage of the protection device is a must. One final note: Foresight and a good working knowledge of emerging technology will help us understand how, where and when our company and our customers will best benefit from the latest and greatest technology. This document seeks to give a basic understanding of different distribution methods currently employed. It is beyond the scope of this document to go into detail of specific intricacies inherent with each method. The reader is encouraged to pursue such data independently.

4 Rear Panel (from page 5 of the ProFusion M5 User Guide)
The rear panel of ProFusion M5 has a variety of connections that are used to integrate it with your existing Audio/Visual system and Ethernet network. Version 1.0 1. Power Cord Input The ProFusion M5 operates on AC power. Note: Never attempt to operate the ProFusion M5 on DC power. 2. On/Off Switch This switch should be left in the ON position at all times. 3. Ethernet Port The Ethernet port is used to connect the ProFusion M5, via a CAT5 Ethernet cable, to your network in order to receive configuration, software and content updates via the Internet. 4. Music Zone Audio Connector (Green Jack) This connection is a 1/8” stereo mini-plug jack used to connect your amplification equipment to the ProFusion M5. 5. Video Zone S-Video/Composite Port This port is used for S-Video and Composite signals. Note: When connecting your ProFusion M5 to your display, or other external video equipment, the provided S-Video/Composite breakout adapter cable is required if the video output type will be S-Video or Composite (version 2.0 only). 6. VGA (D-Sub) Port This port can be used to connect the ProFusion M5 to a single display that is equipped with a VGA input, such as a computer monitor and certain LCD and plasma displays, or to external video equipment that supports VGA or RGBHV signals. 7. DVI (Digital Video Interface) Port This port is designed for the highest resolution video, including “high definition” video. This video output type allows for a purely digital video signal to be passed from the ProFusion M5 to a display or other external video equipment. This connection type is usually found on digital-ready display devices such as certain LCD and plasma displays. 8. (Optional) Second Music Zone Audio Connector (Green Jack) This connection is a 1/8” (stereo mini-plug) jack used to connect your amplification equipment to the ProFusion M5. This output will provide a second zone of audio.

5 Distributing ProFusion M5 video content to a Single Display Device:
Determine our customer’s video content needs. (i.e. HD content or Std. Def. such as music videos or Stimuleye) Determine which display format and device will meet the customers’ requirements. (i.e. Plasma screens aren’t recommended for long hours of video games and cable TV, b/c the still graphics displays of video games and cable stations will “burn in” and be visible when not in use. LCDs have a slow refresh rate that makes fast action of sports/video games look choppy and/or delayed. Don’t have either of the prior problems but take up more space, making them harder to mount on walls or hang.) Ensure the device can accept the desired format. Determine the length of the cable route from the ProFusion M5 to the display device. a. If the distance is < or = to 25’, use a VGA cable as recommended. b. Avoid using VGA cables over 25’, especially when lengths exceed 100ft. c. For long distance video runs, the use of video baluns and CAT5e is recommended. Always include at least a basic video wiring diagram for ease of installation.

6 The illustrations below show distribution of ProFusion M5 video content using HD or Std. Def resolutions: (4 display devices) Application example: Club Lounge Bar Lounge Hotels Lobby Higher End Restaurants

7 Distributing ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content to a Single Display Device:
Determine the customer’s video content needs. (i.e. Profusion M5 HD content or Std. Def. content, HD DSS or HD Cable receivers, etc.) Determine which display format and devices will meet the customers’ requirements. Always provide a dedicated cable run per display device regardless of video format. Determine if all video sources need to be distributed at HD quality to all display devices. Determine whether a matrix switching device will be needed to distribute the video source. Determine whether a scaler (up converter) or scan converter (down converter) is necessary. Matching the native input resolution of the display devices is advisable whenever possible. Always use video distribution amplifier to “split” the video signal between video displays. (i.e. Kramer Electronics and TV One). Determine the length of the cable route from the ProFusion M5 to the display device. If the distance is < or = to 25’, use VGA cables as recommended. Avoid using VGA cables over 25’, especially when lengths exceed 100ft. For long distance video runs, the use of video baluns and CAT5e is recommended. Always include at least a basic video wiring diagram for ease of installation.

8 The illustration below shows distribution of ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content using HD resolutions. (1 display) Application example: Doctor’s Office Waiting Area Dental Office Waiting Area Bank lobby Office Lobby Salon and Spa

9 resolution. (4 displays or more)
The illustration below shows distribution of ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content using HD resolution. (4 displays or more) VIDEO DISTRIBUTION PARTS LIST: (1) KRAVP8X8 - KRAMER 8X8 VIDEO SWITCHER (4) KRATP41 - KRAMER CAT5 XMITTER (COMPONENT) (4) KRATP42 - KRAMER CAT5 RECEIVER (COMPONENT) (1) TVOPC1280HD – TV ONE VIDEO SCALER Application example: Club Lounge Bar Lounge Hotels Lobby Higher End Restaurants

10 Distributing ProFusion M5, DSS and/or Cable video content via Modulated RF:
All video contents must be Std. definition only. All display devices must be conventional CRT television or LCD panel with RF input. All display devices must include the following: RF/TV input (75Ω type F connector). All cabling must be RG-6 or better. Proper cable handling and connector terminations must be strictly observed. The display devices may be “daisy chained” in groups by the desired content. Be sure to account for signal loss on long cable runs and through traps/splitters when employing this method. Please note that this design uses the lowest resolution format and therefore is the least recommended video distribution method. Use this format only when absolutely necessary!! The illustration above is for basic RF distribution using modulators and RF distribution amplifier. Application example: Bars Restaurants Health and Fitness

11 Distributing ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content using Std
Distributing ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content using Std. Def to a single and/or multiple display devices: All Video content must be Standard Def only. Display devices may be Plasma, LCD and/or Analog television. Determine whether the use of a matrix switcher is necessary to distribute the video source. (A matrix switcher has several inputs which can be directed by the user, in any combination, to several outputs) Always use a video distribution amplifier to “split” the video signal between video displays. (i.e. Kramer Electronics and TV One). Determine the length of the cable route from ProFusion M5 to the display device. If the distance is less than 100’, use manufactured/pre-terminated cables as recommended. (i.e. Kramer Electronics and TV One). Avoid using s-video format and cabling methods on long distance runs. For long distance video runs, the use of video baluns and CAT5e is recommended. Always include at least a basic video wiring diagram for ease of installation. The illustration below shows distribution of ProFusion M5 video content using Std. Def to 4 display devices: : ILLUSTRATION E: Application example: Restaurants Bars Health and Fitness Dental Office

12 The illustration below shows distribution of ProFusion M5, DSS and Cable video content using Std. Def. to 4 display devices: ILLUSTRATION F: Application example: Restaurants Bars Health and Fitness

13 Digital Signal History and Terminology
VGA (Video Graphics Array) – 1987 Display hardware introduced by IBM for PS2 line of computers. Also often refers to the 15 pin D sub connector, an analog computer display standard, or the 640x480 resolution standard. HD-SI (High Definition Serial Digital Interface) – 1995 related standard to SDI, but with higher rates of data transmission, for professional video broadcast and production facilities. USB (Universal Serial Bus) – 1995 Intended to eliminate different mouse and keyboard connectors, and offer a standard for computer interface that doesn’t require rebooting to plug or unplug device. DFP (Digital Flat Panel) – pin connector for flat panel displays, maximum resolution of 1280x Superseded by DVI b/c of low max resolution. DVI (Digital Visual Interface) v1.0 – 1999 Designed for carrying uncompressed digital video data to a display. It is partially compatible with HDMI standard in digital mode (DVI-D). Doesn’t carry audio. DVI-I supports both digital and analogue signals (the one with the grounding cross), DVI-D only supports digital signal (no cross). Supports HDCP. Single link versions (akin to unbalanced) have no pins in the center of the connector, Dual link has pins in the center. M5 has a DVI-I dual link connector on it. HDMI (High Definition Multimedia Interface) – 2007 Designed for consumer digital video and audio, supports HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection), designed as simple plug and play. Display Port – 2007 designed as a replacement for DVI and VGA, but without the consumer requirements of HDMI (“handshaking” transmissions, if not set up properly between devices will cause timing out and non-recognition errors – no signal). High resolution support is a standard feature of Display Port, not optional like HDMI. Carries both audio and video signal. Connector can be secured in place with screws, like VGA connections – HDMI connections don’t have this option and are notorious for slipping out of position under stress from the wire or angle of connector.(from vibration or tension) Computer outputs vs. screens: Original digital signal from computer converted to analogue for screens. Currently digital screens are being produced, but computers are still outputting analogue signal. DVI (and Display Port) eliminate all of the digital/analogue and analogue/digital conversions, which result in loss of signal quality. Length of cable runs: All of the formats listed above are intended for consumer use (except for SDI, and HD-SDI) and runs of more than 15 feet aren’t suggested (there are minor exceptions and details, but on the whole they are all similar to unbalanced audio lines for ease of interference and loss of signal). For many commercial install applications, it will be necessary to convert the signal to be sent over CAT5 or CAT6 cable.

14 DVI single link (no pins in center of connector) was designed as a desktop application, 5 meters max., but can be extended with higher quality cable (such as silver instead of copper) as long as bandwidth requirements are still being met at the end of the run. This still is too short for most commercial installs. DVI can be dual link, which has double the # of wires and runs twisted pairs. The runs can be much longer than single link runs of 5 meters, but this can be extremely expensive wire b/c it is not constructed of only copper. For budget minded clients (most of DMX’s), long runs of DVI dual link won’t be an option for them – even if they insist on having a high resolution digital only signal. HDMI is currently only available as single link (19 pins, type A), a type B connector for dual link is currently under development and will have 29 pins. Display Port connection recommended max. length of run is 50 ft. Integration, analogue vs. digital A properly set up analogue signal can look just as good as a digital signal, but will take quiet a bit more time to properly set up. An all digital system will list only the mode options it “senses” between equipment, while with analogue gear you often need to manually choose the correct settings and/or resolution (often with quite a bit of trial and error). Systems containing both analogue and digital gear often require conversion and/or matrix switching to integrate all parts correctly. High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) technologies protect high-value digital motion pictures, television programs and audio against unauthorized interception and copying between a digital set top box or digital video recorder and a digital TV or PC. HDCP is a specification developed by Intel Corporation to protect digital entertainment across the DVI/HDMI/Display Port interface. Feb 17th 2009 Digital TV transition begins Only affects full power broadcast stations in (twelve) major markets, cable carriers have another 3 years before they are required to switch from analogue. The conversion won’t have much impact on DMX video installations currently existing or on installs in the immediate future, because the video source(s) are usually M5, DVD, or Cable. HDMI With the exception of a few legacy CRTs and VCRs, just about every CE component in a client’s home these days is likely to be a digital device. So why would anyone opt for an analog connection? Digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital conversions are inherently lossy, and can never match the output quality of a 100% digital system. As well, analog connections compress the video signal. Only a digital connection can fulfill the promise for the best possible video and audio quality. Access to Content HDCP is the entertainment industry’s choice for content protection, and it’s only supported by digital interconnects, specifically HDMI and DVI. With any other connection type, viewing premium content like HD-DVD or Blu-ray Disc movies in their full resolution will become increasingly difficult.

15 Ease of Use Since HDMI carries both video and audio, it replaces a whole tangle of legacy cables, making for a clean, elegant, efficient installation. But that’s not all. Since it’s a two-way connection, it enables new levels of system intelligence. Connected devices can read each others’ EDID data and auto-configure for optimal performance, or may even control each others’ actions via the CEC channel, enabling “one-touch” command of multiple components in a system. HDMI has always supported 1080p resolution, starting from version 1.0 in However, as with many functions that HDMI enables (such as DVD-Audio and SACD), it is up to the manufacturer to choose whether to implement 1080p in the device. Some TV and device manufacturers have chosen not to implement 1080p in their products because 1080p content has not been widely available, and because changing the internal electronics of the device to support 1080p would increase cost. Viewing 1080p resolution requires at minimum that the HDTV have a display supporting the 1080p pixel resolution. Today, many HDTVs use display technologies (such as PDP, LCD, and microdisplay screens) designed for 720p pixel resolution. In the past, some 1080p HDTVs supported only 720p or 1080i on the HDMI input, then perform video processing to up-convert the 720p/1080i signal to 1080p. This is now changing, as 1080p content is becoming increasingly available, and HDTVs fully supporting 1080p in the display and HDMI electronics became more popular in the market in early True 1080p HDTVs are currently offered in the market by a variety of TV manufacturers. What you need to Know about HDMI Cables The HDMI specification does not limit cables to any particular length, but instead sets performance criteria based on maintaining adequate signal strength. Therefore, cable length is not determined by the HDMI specification, but by the design and manufacturing quality of the cable. Two Types of Cables There are now two categories of performance testing for cables: "Standard" and "High-Speed." Standard cables (referred to as Category 1 cables in the HDMI specification) are those tested to perform at speeds of 75 MHz, which is the equivalent of an uncompressed 1080i signal. High Speed cables (referred to as Category 2 cables in the HDMI specification), are those tested to perform at speeds of 340Mhz, which is the highest bandwidth currently available over an HDMI cable and can successfully handle 1080p signals including those at increased color depths (e.g. greater than eight bits per color) and/or increased refresh rates (e.g. 120Hz). High Speed cables are also able to accommodate higher resolution displays, such as those at the latest 1440p and WQXGA resolutions (e.g. cinema monitors with a resolution of 2560 x 1600). For whole-house installations and other long-run configurations, there are many options available for extending the signal over greater distances (See Running Long Cable Lengths). Sourcing HDMI cables Manufacturing quality can make a big difference in a cable that can withstand the demands of a home installation, so it’s always a good idea to buy from a reliable, trusted source. Bargain cables are not always a bargain, especially when pulling through walls and sending signals over distance. Pulling HDMI Cable Remember how much data is running through that cable and treat it with a light touch. Tolerances are tight, so be careful - don’t yank HDMI cables or twist connectors. For in-wall installations, pull-through socks are available that will protect the connector as the cable is pulled through the wall or conduit. This is a particularly good idea if you are installing an active cable, where the connectors are larger and more sensitive because of their embedded electronics.

16 HDMI Connector Types The HDMI specification defines three connector types, but only two are in common use. Most products rely on the Standard (Type A) connector, but many newer portable devices such as HD videocams and digital still cameras are incorporating the Mini Connector (Type C). Standard to Mini adapters are widely available. Keeping Connectors Seated You may occasionally experience difficulty keeping an HDMI connector seated. It could be a wall-mounted flat-panel with vertically-oriented connectors that want to fall out, or a projector with the connectors inside the outer case, or a badly designed overmolding that makes it difficult to get a flush fit. As well, overly heavy cables can put undue strain on the connector. The HDMI licensing authority is actively evaluating solutions for a locking connector, but in the meantime, fixes are available. There are swivel adapters that fit between the port and the cable, allowing you to adjust the angle of the connection as needed in both the "x" and "y" directions, and fix it in that position. Another option is the port saver, a short HDMI dongle with male and female connectors that can be used in much the same way. Running Long Cable Lengths There are many HDMI Adopters working on HDMI solutions that extend a cable’s effective distance from the typical 10 meter range to much longer lengths. These companies manufacture a variety of solutions that include active cables (active electronics built into cables that boost and extend the cable’s signal), repeaters, amplifiers as well as CAT5/6 and fiber solutions. Like all HDMI-enabled components, cables must be tested to meet the Compliance Test Standards set by the HDMI Licensing, LLC. Cables must successfully pass a signal of a certain strength (Standard cable must deliver a signal of 17 MHz; High Speed must deliver a signal of 340 MHz) to pass compliance. The HDMI specification does not dictate cable length requirements. Different cables can successfully send HDMI signals various distances, depending on the quality of the design and construction. As well, HDMI compliance testing assumes “worst case” scenarios – testing with components that have minimally performing HDMI electronics. That is why you may see cables in the market that claim to successfully pass an HDMI signal at very long lengths. This may be true using certain quality CE components on each end, but may not work in every case. It is best to test entire systems before installing. Active Cables & Boosters Using active electronics to boost and clean up the signal can effectively double the range of a standard twisted-copper HDMI cable. Cable runs of up to 30 meters are the norm for this type of solution, which may be deployed as either a standalone signal management device, i.e., a repeater or booster box, or incorporated into the manufacture of the cable itself. Boxes are available in many configurations, usually incorporating both booster and equalization functions, and may also serve as repeaters or switchers. Active cables, on the other hand, embed the signal-enhancement electronics in the cable itself, with chips embedded in the connector housings. They are unidirectional, using different modules at the transmit and receive ends of the cable. All the technologies in this category require external power. Beware products that draw power from the +5V power line. Although these may work in certain applications, different components draw varying amount of power from that line to communicate with each other. A cable that draws power from the HDMI cable may fail when components and the active components in the cable or external booster are all drawing from the same source. .

17 HDMI over Cat 5/6 Runs of up to 50 meters can be achieved by sending the HDMI signal over a run of Cat 5/6 networking cable, using special adapters designed for this purpose. As with the active cable solutions discussed above, they incorporate booster and equalization electronics at each end of the path, and require external power. Because of its tighter manufacturing tolerances, Cat 6 cable is generally preferred over Cat 5 in these applications. HDMI over Fiber The longest HDMI cable runs seen to date have been achieved using fiber-optic cable, which is far less susceptible to attenuation and interference than copper. Electrically it is similar to an active cable or Cat 5/6 solution, the principal difference being the higher-quality optical cabling between the transmit and receive connectors. HDMI over fiber is a highly robust solution, effective in cable runs up to 100 meters or more.

18 VGA Cable and DisplayPort
There are nineteen pins in an HDMI connector, as seen in the following illustration: Pins 1 through 9 carry the three TMDS data channels (Transition Minimized Differential Signaling – the technology that allows DVI and HDMI to send high-speed digital data), three pins per channel. TMDS data includes both video and audio information, and each channel has three separate lines for + values, - values, and a ground or data shield. Pins 10 through 12 carry data for the TMDS clock channel, which helps keep the signals in synchronization. As with the TMDS data channels, there are separate lines for + values, - values, and a data shield. Pin 13 is carries the CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) channel, used for sending command and control data between connected devices. Pin 14 is reserved for future use. Pins 15 and 16 are dedicated to the DDC (Display Data Channel), used for communicating EDID (Extended Display Identification Channel) information between devices. Pin 17 is a data shield for the CEC and DDC channels. Pin 18 carries a low-voltage (+5V) power supply. Pin 19 is the Hot Plug Detect, dedicated to monitoring power up/down and plug/unplug events. VGA Cable and DisplayPort Video Graphics Array (VGA) cables where designed in 1987 to serve as the interface between PCs and Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) monitors. Consequently, the VGA interface is analog and does not support the viewing performance and, protected high definition content features needed for the latest digital displays. VGA is becoming increasingly difficult to implement in the latest silicon technology used in PC chipsets. The DisplayPort interface supports higher resolution, color depth, and refresh rate performance than VGA through a slimmer cable and a much smaller connector, and is designed for the latest graphics and display technologies.

19 Size comparison of DVI, VGA, and Display Port cables
Size comparison of DVI, VGA, and Display Port cables. Display Port connector is around 30mm. As a truly digital interface, Display Port enables you to get the full experience from your monitor. Display Port features an innovative, micro-packet architecture and includes a bi-directional auxiliary channel for two way communications between a PC and a display. This modern architecture enables exciting display capabilities and is designed to enable maximum display performance. The first version of Display Port provides over twice the capacity of single-channel DVI over the same number of wires through a much smaller and easier to use connector. Display Port v1.1a delivers 10.8Gbps of bandwidth as a standard feature over a USB sized connector. In addition to greater resolution, Display Port also supports greater color depths and higher refresh rates. Color depth and refresh rate are becoming increasingly important in delivering stunning image quality with the latest display technologies for enjoying 3D games, high definition content, and professional applications. The companies behind Display Port believe an open standard represents the better way. A free and open standard enables complete interoperability – meaning you can connect to any display or projector from a single connector. Future extensions of Display Port in 2008 will provide enhancements such as multi-monitor support and a simple adaptor that enables a single cable connection to a multifunction monitor that includes a USB hub. Display Port’s micro packet architecture improves display connectivity and usage options that improve the viewing experience. Display Port was originally intended to provide a common replacement for LVDS, DVI and VGA, but while Display Port has a rich A/V feature set, it is expected to complement, not replace, HDMI. HDMI was designed as an HDTV interface, not a general-purpose internal and external display interface for IT equipment. Many of Display Port’s unique benefits, such as direct drive monitor design and single cable multi-function monitor connectivity are not available with HDMI. High resolution support and high performance are standard features of Display Port, whereas these are optional premium features of HDMI. Business and enterprise customers may not want to implement all of the consumer electronics features that are required in HDMI products Display Port is designed to meet the future needs of the PC industry while preserving compatibility with HDMI.


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