Language Transfer Transfer of Training Strategies of Second Language Communication Overgeneralization of the TL Rules Strategies of Second Language Learning ( Selinker, 1972)
Direct Feedback Indirect Feedback Meta-linguistic Feedback 4
Teachers provide correct form, i.e. crossing out an unnecessary word, phrase or morpheme, inserting a missing word, phrase or morpheme, inserting a missing word or morpheme, and writing the correct form above or near to the erroneous form ( Ferris 2006) Advantages – Provides learners with explicit guidance about how to correct their errors. Ferris and Roberts (2001) suggest direct written corrective feedback is probably better than indirect written corrective feedback with writers of low levels of language proficiency. Disadvantages – It requires minimal processing on the part of the learner and thus, although it might help them to produce the correct form when they revise their writing, it may not contribute to long- term learning.
It Involves indicating that the learner has made an error but without actually correcting it. This can be done by underlining the errors or using cursors to show omissions in the learners’ text or by placing a cross in the margin next to the line containing the error. In effect, this involves deciding whether or not to show the precise location of the error, i.e. just indicate which line of text the error is on. Advantages Caters to ‘guided learning and problem solving’ (Lalande 1982) and encourages learners to reflect on linguistic forms Considered more likely to lead to long-term learning (Ferris and Roberts 2002) Disadvantages Learners cannot correct if they do not know the correct form Learners may be able to correct but will not be certain that they are correct
Provides learners with some form of explicit comment about the nature of the errors they have made. Use of error codes, i.e. abbreviated labels for different kinds of errors placed over the location of the error in the text or in the margin. e.g. art = article, prep = preposition, sp = spelling, ww = wrong word, t = tense, etc. Meta-linguistic explanations of their errors, e.g. numbering errors and providing meta-linguistic comments at the end of the text. Informal poll: learners were in favor of meta- linguistic explanations but teachers were not. Rod Ellis suggested that it had something to do with hard work on the teachers’ part.
Legend 8 SpSpelling CapCapitals needed pPunctuation w/oWord order >Missing word (Etc)
Make sure your students are familiar with and understand the symbols used Make sure the students understand the underlying grammatical rule Be consistent! 9
It’s a practice in language education where feedback is given by one student to another. Peer feedback is used in writing classes of both first language and second language to provide students more opportunities to learn from each other. After students finish a writing assignment, the instructor has two or more than two students work together to check each other's work and give comments to the peer partner. Comments from peers are called as peer feedback. Peer feedback can be in the form of corrections, opinions, suggestions, ideas to each other. Thus, peer feedback is a two-way process in which one cooperates with the other. 10 Image: Working Together. From: http://pwebs.net/branding/2007/05/developing-business-brand-online.php
Keep feedback short and simple to allow the students to understand it. Ensure feedback is specific to the assignment, not giving broad or general suggestions Make sure to emphasize ideas over grammar and mechanics. When correcting written work avoid marking sentences that are technically correct but poorly written or awkward. Focus on errors that the students are familiar with and can understand. Postpone grammar corrections until the final stages of the assignment to allow for focus on the meaning and idea construction Errors are a normal part of learning. Make sure the students know it! Graham (1987) 11
The student is autonomous. The teacher is no longer an arbiter. It enhances students’ self esteem ( less anxiety). Peer feedback offers students a sense of audience 12