Presentation on theme: "CLASSICAL CHINA What are the positive and negative effects of political systems? After it falls, what impact does a civilization have on history?"— Presentation transcript:
CLASSICAL CHINA What are the positive and negative effects of political systems? After it falls, what impact does a civilization have on history?
The Main Idea Classical Civilizations: Han Dynasty (206 BC-220 AD) During the classical period, civilization spreads beyond river valleys – Powerful empires emerge in some areas – The major philosophies of today emerge – New types of government and systems of thought are developed – Geography still had a great impact on the development of civilizations
Geography China is surrounded by natural barriers – Himalayas Mountains – Gobi Desert – Jungles – Pacific Ocean
Geography Most isolated of all civilizations – Culture develops separate from other civilizations – Ethnocentrism: belief that one’s culture is superior to all others – “Middle Kingdom”
Zhou Dynasty: Government (1027 BCE-221 BCE) Mandate of Heaven=divine right to rule – Zhou told the people that the gods had become angry at the Shang Dynasty’s cruelty and now had chosen the Zhou to rule – From this time on, each new dynasty claims the Mandate of Heaven Chinese use the Mandate of Heaven to explain the dynastic cycle – Dynastic cycle=rise and fall of dynasties
Dynastic Cycle Generations go by. New dynasty becomes... Old Dynasty -taxes people too much -stops protecting people -lets roads and walls fall apart -treats people unfairly Old Dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven Problems -floods, earthquakes -peasants revolt -invaders attack empire -bandits raid provinces New dynasty claims Mandate of Heaven New Dynasty -brings peace -builds roads, canals -gives land to peasants -protects people
Zhou Dynasty: Contributions Accurate calendar (365 ¼ days) Process of making silk discovered First Books made Money used for first time
Zhou Dynasty: Collapse The Zhou Dynasty collapses and China enters a time of war (“Warring States Period”) Three new philosophies develop in response to this time of disorder – Confucianism – Daoism – Legalism
Qin Dynasty Leader of the Qin state conquers the other states and proclaims himself Shi Huangdi (“First Emperor”) Autocrat=a single ruler with complete authority
Qin Dynasty: Centralized Government Shi Huangdi unifies China under a centralized government – Standardizes measurements – Creates national coins – Promotes uniformity in Chinese writing – Repairs roads and canals
Qin Dynasty: Centralized Government Shi Huangdi creates loyalty to the central government by – Spying on government officials – Forcing noble families to live at capitol city so they could be monitored
Qin Dynasty: Legalism Philosophy based on teachings of Hanfeizi and used by Shi Huangdi Legalism says: – “nature of man is evil” – The motive for most actions is greed – Strength is the ruler’s greatest asset
Qin Dynasty: Legalism Legalism teaches that the only way to achieve order is through strict laws and harsh punishments – Shi Huangdi puts people in jail that went against him and burned books
Qin Dynasty: Contributions Unifies China The Great Wall – Huangdi builds the Great Wall to keep out invaders and to unify China – It took thousands of workers years to build the wall and many died in the process – Shows emperor's power and vast resources of China--Symbol
After Shi Huangdi dies, the people revolt – A new dynasty emerges and Eases harsh policies of the Qin Replaces the philosophy of Legalism with Confucianism Policies help Han dynasty to last for 400 years
Han Dynasty: Government Most famous Han emperor is Wudi – Establishes civil service system Exams based on the teachings of Confucius (an important philosopher) determined who would get government jobs – Improves roads and canals
Han Dynasty: Society Civil service exam establishes Confucian values in the government and daily life – Filial piety-respect for parents and ancestors Confucius spelled out proper behavior for all parts of society
Han Dynasty: Society Confucius taught that men were superior to women – Because of this belief, women were excluded from civil service exams and could not hold positions in government.
Han Dynasty: Global Trade Routes Emperor Wudi also opens a trade route called the Silk Road – Links China to lands as far west as Mesopotamia – Silk Road eventually stretches 4,000 miles – Chinese send silk west – Other civilizations send muslin (type of cloth), glass, and new foods
Han Dynasty: Global Trade Routes So what? – Silk road brings China out of isolation!
Han Dynasty: Contributions The Han period is the golden age in China Han Dynasty was the most technologically advanced civilization in the world at this time
Han Dynasty: Contributions in Technology First to learn how to make paper out of wood pulp Invented wheel barrow, fishing reel, rudder (used to steer ships)
Han Dynasty: Contributions in Science Acupuncture—used to relieve pain and treat illnesses Experimented with herbal remedies and anesthesia Scholars wrote texts about chemistry, zoology, and botany
Questions to Study What was the status and role of women in classical China? How did the geography China influence its success? Why did the Chinese define their history in terms of dynastic cycles?
Practice! Before the use of the Silk Road, how did geography affect early China? A)The mountains and deserts in western and southwestern China slowed the exchange of ideas. B)The northwestern region provided many fertile areas suitable for farming. C)The three major river systems provided barriers against invasion. D)The lack of deep-water ports on the eastern coast prevented China from developing trade with other nations.
Practice! Which civilization first developed a civil service system, invented gunpowder, and manufactured porcelain? A)Aztec B)Chinese C)Japanese D)Roman
Practice! The use of the Silk Road in Asia and caravan routes in northern Africa and southwestern Asia encouraged A)self-sufficiency B)Cultural isolation C)Ethnocentrism D)Cultural diffusion