Presentation on theme: "ALLIED HEALTH I UNDERSTANDING THE HUMAN BODY. UNIT ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why are the characteristics of life an important part of the human body? How is."— Presentation transcript:
UNIT ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why are the characteristics of life an important part of the human body? How is the organization of the body systems important to the orientation of the human body? How does the orientation of the human body help to define direction?
OVERVIEW: How is your body organized? Our bodies are amazingly complex Organization Smallest element (atoms: chemical) Cells Tissues Organs Systems Organisms Simple Complex
CELLS: What substances perform the work of the cells? Cells vary in shape, size and function All cells need food, water and oxygen to live and function Basic structures of a cell: Membrane outer covering of the whole cell and nucleus Helps to maintain shape and keep parts inside the cell Cytoplasm gel like substance in the middle of the cell that organelles float in. Helps in movement and reproduction
CELLS: CONTINUED Nucleus central part of the cell All cells have then EXCEPT RBC’s (erythrocytes or red blood cells) Directs all cell activity contains chromosomes Chromosomes made of DNA ( deoxyribonucleic acid) contains genetic information called genes genes : hair color, eye color, height, weight, gender, and hereditary diseases.
CELL TYPES: Do all cells have same or differing functions? All cells have special and specific functions The functions are influenced by the shape of the cell and adapt to meet the need at hand. CELL TYPES: Nerve cells: usually long with thin extensions that transmit impulse signals of a long distance. (neurons or neuroglia) Epithelial cells: thin, flat and tightly packed cells that preform to protect underlying cells (skin cells) Muscle cells: slender rods that attach to structures to help with motion
TISSUES: A grouping of cells that come together for a specific function. 4 different tissue types Connective tissue holds body parts such as bones, ligaments and tendons together Epithelial tissue covers all external and internal body surfaces Skin and linings of internal organs and intestines Muscle Tissue expends and contracts allowing for movement of the body, food and blood Nervous Tissue carries messages from all the parts of the body to and from the brain and spinal cord
ORGANS: A grouping of tissues that perform a specific function. Organs can only completer their specific functions. EXAMPLES: Kidneys: maintain water and salt balance in the blood Stomach: breaks down food into usable substances for energy.
SYSTEMS: Grouping of organs that work together to perform on of the body’s major functions. All systems have separate and distinct functions They do rely on each other to perform at their best. If there is an issue in one system other systems will have functional issues. 11 total systems in the human body
1. REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM Controls reproduction and heredity Female System OvariesVagina Fallopian tubes Uterus Mammary glands Breasts Male System TestesPenis Prostate land Vas deferens Seminal Vesicles
2. ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Consists of glands that secrete hormones for regulation of many of the body’s activity
3. URINARY SYSTEM Eliminates metabolic waste, maintain the acid – based and water-salt balance, and help regulate blood pressure
4. DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Consist of organs that aide in digestion, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste. Necessary of normal intake of food and water into your body.
5. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Consists of the organs that help in oxygen exchange. Performs respiration in the cellular level
6. LYMPHATIC AND IMMUNE SYSTEM Helps to protect the body from infection and disease (nonspecific and specific defense of infection)
7. CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Transports blood, oxygen, and nutrients to the tissues and removes waste from the tissues.
8. SPECIAL SENSES SYSTEM Involved in the reactions of the senses and regulate the impulses of the senses to the brain.
9. NERVOUS SYSTEM Regulates most of the body activities, sends, and receives messages from the sensory organs.
10. MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM Provides the movement for the entire body. With out the bones and muscles you would not be able to stand or move.
11. INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Largest organ in the whole body and serves as a protective cover.
BODY CAVITIES: What are the cavities called and which systems live in each? Dorsal Cavity located on the back of the body Contains the Cranial Cavity brain only Contains the Spinal Cavity Spinal cord only
BODY CAVITIES: What are the cavities called and which systems live in each? Ventral Cavity located on the front of the body Contains the Pelvic Cavity Reproductive organs Diaphragm Muscle that separate the Thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity Contains the Thoracic Cavity heart and lungs only Contains the Abdominal Cavity Gastrointestinal only
ANATOMICAL POSITION What position is this called?
ANATOMICAL POSITION Medical reference that helps define directional terms and anatomical locations Has been used since the early 500 BC Anatomical Position Standing upright Facing forward Arms at side Palms facing forward Feet together
BODY QUADRANTS The abdominal cavity is so large that is helpful to divide it in to 4 pieces These pieces are called quadrants RUQ = right upper quadrant LUQ= left upper quadrant RLQ= right lower quadrant LLQ= left lower quadrant
BODY QUADRANTS CONTINUED RUQ = right upper quadrant Liver Pylorus Duodenum Right kidney Ascending colon Transverse colon Large and small intestine
BODY QUADRANTS CONTINUED LUQ = left upper quadrant Medial lobe of the Liver Spleen Stomach Pancreas Left kidney Ascending colon Transverse colon Large and small intestine
BODY QUADRANTS CONTINUED RLQ= right lower quadrant Appendix Cecum Bladder Right Ovary Right Spermatic Cord Right ureter Ascending colon Transverse colon Large and small intestine
BODY QUADRANTS CONTINUED LLQ = left lower quadrant Bladder Left Ovary Left Spermaitc Cord Left Ureter Sigmoid colon descending colon Large and small intestine