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Unit 3a Industrial Control Systems

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 3a Industrial Control Systems"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 3a Industrial Control Systems
Sections: Basic Elements of an Automated System Levels of Automation Process Industries vs. Discrete Manufacturing Industries Continuous Control Discrete Control Computer Process Control Supervisory Control Enterprise Control

2 Transformation Process
Automation Defined Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is accomplished without human assistance Automation has cost-benefits Program Instructions Control System Transformation Process Power

3 Program of Instructions
Set of commands that specify the sequence of steps in the work cycle and the details of each step CNC part program, Robot program, AS/RS program, etc.

4 Work Cycle Program Number of steps in the work cycle
Manual participation in the work cycle (e.g., loading and unloading workparts) Process parameters - how many must be controlled? Operator interaction - does the operator enter processing data? Variations in part or product styles

5 Control System

6 Control Architecture Level 4 Business Information (Business Office)
Enterprise Control Plant Control (Production, Quality, …) Cell Controller (Supervisory Control) Machine Controller (Automatic Control) Device Control (Sensors/Actuators) Level 4 Business Information (Business Office) Level 3 Level 2 Level 1 Industrial Automation (Shop Floor) Level 0

7 Automatic Control - Level 0 and 1
Input Parameters (Level 2) Logical Signal Error Controller Actuators Inputs Process Feedback Signal Sensors Output Variables

8 Sensors – Level 0 Physical Medium Sensing Element Conditioning Target
Handling Signal Temperature Resistance Voltage Information

9 Actuators – Level 0 Signal Processing & Amplification Mechanism
Electric Hydraulic Pneumatic Final Actuation Element Actuator Sensor Logical Signal

10 Advanced Automation Functions
Safety monitoring Maintenance and repair diagnostics Error detection and recovery

11 Safety Monitoring Use of sensors to track the system's operation and identify conditions that are unsafe or potentially unsafe Reasons for safety monitoring To protect workers and equipment Possible responses to hazards: Complete stoppage of the system Sounding an alarm Reducing operating speed of process Taking corrective action to recover from the safety violation

12 Maintenance and Repair Diagnostics
Status monitoring Monitors and records status of key sensors and parameters during system operation Failure diagnostics Invoked when a malfunction occurs Purpose: analyze recorded values so the cause of the malfunction can be identified Recommendation of repair procedure Provides recommended procedure for the repair crew to effect repairs

13 Error Detection and Recovery
Error detection – functions: Use the system’s available sensors to determine when a deviation or malfunction has occurred Correctly interpret the sensor signal Classify the error Error recovery – possible strategies: Make adjustments at end of work cycle Make adjustments during current work cycle Stop the process to invoke corrective action Stop the process and call for help

14 Industrial Control Systems
The automatic regulation of unit operations and their associated equipment as well as the integration and coordination of the unit operations into the larger production system

15 Process vs. Discrete Industries
Process industries Production operations are performed on amounts of materials Liquids, gases, powders, etc. Discrete manufacturing industries Production operations are performed on quantities of materials Parts, product units

16 Variables and Parameters
Variables - outputs of the process Parameters - inputs to the process Continuous variables and parameters - they are uninterrupted as time proceeds Discrete variables and parameters - can take on only certain values within a given range

17 Types of Control Continuous control - variables and parameters are continuous and analog Discrete control - variables and parameters are discrete, mostly binary discrete Maintain the value of an output variable at a desired level Parameters and variables are usually continuous Similar to operation of a feedback control system Most continuous industrial processes have multiple feedback loops Examples: Chemical reaction (temperature, pressure, etc.); Position control of gripper at end of a robot arm

18 Types of Continuous Process Control
Regulatory control Feed forward control Steady-State optimization Adaptive control On-line search strategies Other specialized techniques Expert systems Neural networks

19 Regulatory Control Objective - maintain process performance at a certain level or within a given tolerance band of that level Appropriate when performance relates to a quality measure Performance measure is sometimes computed based on several output variables Performance measure is called the Index of performance (IP) Problem with regulatory control is that an error must exist in order to initiate control action

20 Regulatory Control

21 Feedforward Control Objective - anticipate the effect of disturbances that will upset the process by sensing and compensating for them before they affect the process Mathematical model captures the effect of the disturbance on the process Complete compensation for the disturbance is difficult due to variations, imperfections in the mathematical model and imperfections in the control actions Usually combined with regulatory control Regulatory control and feedforward control are more closely associated with process industries

22 Feedforward Control Combined with Feedback Control

23 Steady-State Optimization
Class of optimization techniques in which the process exhibits the following characteristics: Well-defined index of performance (IP) Known relationship between process variables and IP System parameter values that optimize IP can be determined mathematically Open-loop system Optimization techniques include differential calculus, mathematical programming, etc.

24 Steady State (Open-Loop) Optimal Control

25 Adaptive Control Because steady-state optimization is open-loop, it cannot compensate for disturbances Adaptive control is a self-correcting form of optimal control that includes feedback control Measures the relevant process variables during operation (feedback control) Uses a control algorithm that attempts to optimize some index of performance (optimal control)

26 Adaptive Control Operates in a Time-Varying Environment
The environment changes over time and the changes have a potential effect on system performance Example: Supersonic aircraft operates differently in subsonic flight than in supersonic flight If the control algorithm is fixed, the system may perform quite differently in one environment than in another An adaptive control system is designed to compensate for its changing environment by altering some aspect of its control algorithm to achieve optimal performance

27 Three Functions in Adaptive Control
Identification function – current value of IP is determined based on measurements of process variables Decision function – decide what changes should be made to improve system performance Change one or more input parameters Alter some internal function of the controller Modification function – implement the decision function Concerned with physical changes (hardware rather than software)

28 Adaptive Control System

29 On-Line Search Strategies
Special class of adaptive control in which the decision function cannot be sufficiently defined Relationship between input parameters and IP is not known, or not known well enough to implement the previous form of adaptive control Instead, experiments are performed on the process Small systematic changes are made in input parameters to observe effects Based on observed effects, larger changes are made to drive the system toward optimal performance

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