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Presentation on theme: "HAZARD COMMUNICATION PROGRAM"— Presentation transcript:


2 Introduction Objectives
This workshop introduces you to the updated 2012 OSHA Standard 29 CFR (HCS 2012) and the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). The workbook will help guide you through the various topics we will be discussing today. Please take notes and if you have any questions, please feel free to ask at any time during the presentation. Your trainer will answer general questions related to the hazard communication program, but specific questions concerning chemicals or procedures at your workplace should be referred to an OSHA consultant or insurer representative. Objectives Describe the Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requirements and the four practical elements of the rule for the purpose of informing employees of classified chemicals, their hazards, and protective measures to prevent injury or illness. Written Hazard Communication Program Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) Labeling Employee Information and Training Note: This workbook is to be used only by a competent, qualified safety trainer. The trainer should have adequate knowledge and experience related to the topic. If the trainer has not completed a “Train-The-Trainer” course, we recommend completion of the OSHAcademy 36 Hour Train-the-Trainer Program. The trainer should also be evaluated by the employer’s training director or other competent person as part of the safety trainer’s internal certification process. See ANSI/ASSE for more information on certification. Delete this note prior to printing the workbook. Please Note: This material, or any other material used to inform employers of compliance requirements of OSHA standards through simplification of the regulations should not be considered a substitute for any provisions of the OSHA Act or for any standards issued by OSHA.

3 HCS 2012 and the GHS The new HCS 2012 is now aligned with the United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS) that provides many benefits, including the following: Provides a common and coherent approach to classifying chemicals and communicating hazard information on labels and safety data sheets; Improves the quality and consistency of hazard information in the workplace; Helps reduce trade barriers; Results in productivity improvements for American businesses that regularly handle, store, and use classified hazardous chemicals; Provides cost savings for American businesses that periodically update safety data sheets and labels for classified chemicals. Remember, the old HCS 1994 gave workers the right to know, but the new HCS gives workers the right to understand: this is a very important change, so look for it on the final exam!

4 Purpose of the Hazard Communication Program.
The purpose of the HCS 2012 is to make sure that: The hazards of all chemicals produced or imported are classified, and information about the classified hazards is transmitted to employers and employees. Classifying the potential hazards of chemicals, and communicating information concerning hazards and appropriate protective measures to employees, may include: Developing and maintaining a written hazard communication program; Listing the hazardous chemicals present; Labeling containers of chemicals in the workplace; Labeling containers of chemicals being shipped to other workplaces; Preparing and distributing SDSs to employees and downstream employers; Developing and implementing employee training programs. Remember, OSHA's new HCS 2012 is intended to be consistent with the provisions of the United Nations' GHS. (This may be on the exam!)

5 Scope and Application The HCS 2012 requires chemical manufacturers or importers to classify the hazards of chemicals which they produce or import. It requires all employers to provide information to their employees about the hazardous chemicals to which they are exposed, by means of: a hazard communication program labels and other forms of warning safety data sheets, and information and training. In addition, the HCS requires distributors to transmit the required information to employers. Employers who do not produce or import chemicals need only focus on those parts of this rule that deal with establishing a workplace program and communicating information to their workers.

6 Solids Liquids Gases r What are “Hazardous Chemicals”?
"Hazardous chemical" means any chemical which is classified as a physical hazard or a health hazard, a simple asphyxiant, combustible dust, pyrophoric gas, or hazard not otherwise classified. Physical hazards - reactions that could occur if chemicals are handled or stored improperly. This could result in a fire, explosion, and/or toxic gas release. Health hazards - health effects caused directly by the chemicals themselves, not an injury resulting from a reaction. All chemical materials can cause health problems under the wrong conditions. r Forms of Hazardous Chemicals Dusts are finely divided particles. Example - wood dust. Fumes are even smaller particles usually formed when solid metal is heated and vaporized, and then condenses as tiny particles. Fibers are similar to dusts but are of an elongated shape. Examples - asbestos and fiberglass. Mists are liquid droplets that have been sprayed into the atmosphere. Vapors are gases formed when liquid evaporates. Gases are substances that are normally airborne at room temperature. A vapor is the gaseous phase of a substance which is a normally a liquid or solid at room temperature. Solids Liquids Gases

7 r Effects of Chemicals The effects of chemicals on the human body depend on several factors: 1. The form of the chemical: solid, liquid, or gas 2. How the chemical contacts the body: ingestion, inhalation, or absorption 3. The amount, or dose, the body receives 4. How toxic, or poisonous the chemical is. r Routes of Entry 1. Ingestion 2. Inhalation 3. Absorption 4. Injection Which route of entry is most common?

8 r Control Strategies In determining what control strategies to use, a hierarchy of controls serves as a guide to ensure the most effective strategies are used. The most desirable control strategy seeks to control the hazard at the source by using such strategies as total enclosure or substitution of a safer chemical. It also attempts to control the hazardous chemical along the path by using such measures as ventilation. Next, it tries to control the effects of hazardous chemicals by ensuring minimum exposure. This is accomplished by incorporating safer work practices through written safety policies, rules, supervision and training. Lastly, methods are used to control the hazardous chemical at the worker by using personal protective equipment. r Hierarchy of Controls 1. Engineering Controls - Replacing, redesigning, enclosing, substitution. Example: Replacing highly toxic chemicals with less toxic chemicals. 2. Administrative Controls - Scheduling, changing procedures. Example: Scheduling work so that there is less exposure to an employee. 3. Personal Protective Equipment - in conjunction with the other two strategies. Example: Gloves, apron, etc.

9 r Three Ways to Inform Workers
1. Labels 2. SDS 3. Training r Chemical Manufacturers Assess hazards Distribute SDS Produce and revise label for container r Distributors Transmit SDS Retails/Wholesale distributors must: 1. Provide SDS to commercial accounts & post sign. 2. Provide hazardous chemical manufacturer address/phone to employers who do not have commercial account. r Employers Provide information

10 r Rules apply to: r Rules do not apply to:
Any chemical that employees may be exposed to under normal conditions in the workplace or in a foreseeable emergency. r Rules do not apply to: Hazardous wastes as defined by Solid Waste Disposal Act and subject to EPA. Hazardous substances as defined by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act and subject to EPA. Tobacco or tobacco products. Wood or wood products, including lumber which will not be processed, where only flammable or combustible hazards exist. Wood or wood products which have been treated with a hazardous chemical covered by the standard, and wood which may be subsequently sawed or cut, generating dust, are not exempted. Articles - a manufactured item other than a fluid or particle that does not release more than minute or trace amounts of hazardous chemicals and does not pose physical or health hazard. Food or alcoholic beverages sold, used, or prepared in a retail establishment. Foods intended for personal consumption. Drugs as defined by the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, in solid, final form for direct administration to a patient. Drugs packaged by manufacturers for sale in retail establishments (e.g., over-the-counter drugs). Drugs intended for personal consumption (e.g., first aid supplies). Consumer products or hazardous substances defined by Consumer Product Safety Act and Federal Hazardous Substances Act used in same manner and ranges of exposure (frequency and duration) as that experienced by consumers. Nuisance particulates that do not pose physical or health hazards. Ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Biological hazards. Workers who encounter chemicals only in non-routine, isolated instances. (e.g., bank tellers, office workers)

11 Part II - The Written Program
r Must be available to: 1. Employee 2. Employee representative 3. OSHA representative r Three subject areas: 1. Labels 2. SDS Maintenance 3. Training r Other subject areas: Hazardous chemicals list Non-routine procedures Pipe and piping systems Mobile unit procedures Multi-employer procedures

12 Label Requirements r Primary container label information: 1. Identification of chemical 2. Appropriate warning hazard - Specifies physical or health hazard including target organ effects. 3. Manufacturer's name and address Primary Container - used by the chemical manufacture, distributor, or importer to store hazardous chemicals. The "new" Shipped - Primary Container Label Requirements Under the new HSC 2012, labels on primary containers shipped from manufacturers or distributors, the container must be labeled, tagged or marked with the following six items: Product Identifier Signal words Hazard Statements Pictograms Precautionary statements Supplier identification


14 Label Requirements Workplace or Secondary Container Labeling
r Secondary container label information: 1. Identification of chemical 2. Appropriate warning hazard May use words, pictures, symbols or combination to provide general information about hazards. Secondary container - used by the employer to store hazardous chemical. Workplace or Secondary Container Labeling The employer must ensure that each workplace or secondary container of hazardous chemicals in the workplace is labeled, tagged or marked with either: The information required on shipped container labels; or, Product identifier and words, pictures, symbols, or combination thereof, which provide at least general information regarding the hazards of the chemicals, and which, in conjunction with the other information immediately available to employees under the hazard communication program, will provide employees with the specific information regarding the physical and health hazards of the hazardous chemical.

15 r Portable container label requirements:
None - if used immediately. Includes drugs dispensed by a pharmacy to health care provider for direct administration to a patient. “Immediate use” means that the hazardous chemical will be under the control of and used only by the person who transfers it from a labeled container and only within the work shift in which it is transferred. r Stationary process container label requirements Signs, placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures, other written materials. Must identify chemical and appropriate hazard warning Portable container - used to transfer or immediately use hazardous chemicals. Stationary process container - Usually a large unmovable tank or vessel used to store hazardous chemicals.

16 HCS/GHS Pictograms and Hazards
Health Hazard Flame Exclamation Mark Gas Cylinder Corrosion Exploding Bomb Flame Over Circle Environment Skull and Crossbones HCS/GHS Pictograms and Hazards

17 r Never deface or remove labels
Unless container is immediately marked with the required information. There is no need to affix a new label if old label meet labeling requirements. r Must be legible and in English r Prominently displayed r Hazard Communication labels are not required on: Pesticides subject to Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. Chemical Substances or mixtures subject to Toxic Substances Control Act (EPA) Food, food additives, color additives, drugs, cosmetics, or medical or veterinary devices or products regulated by Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act or the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act and subject to FDA or Department of Agriculture. Distilled spirits (beverage alcohols), wine or malt beverages intended for nonindustrial use when regulated by the Federal Alcohol Administration Act and subject to Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Agricultural or vegetable seeds treated with pesticides and labeled in accordance with the Federal Seed Act issued by the Department of Agriculture. r Solid materials(metal, wood, plastic): Label required only with initial shipment. Need not be included with subsequent shipments unless information on the label changes.

18 Exercise: Find out what’s wrong with these labels?
Label category: ________________________ What’s wrong?_________________________ _____________________________________ What’s might be the result? _______________ Label category: ________________________ What’s wrong?_________________________ _____________________________________ What’s might be the result? _______________

19 Safety Data Sheets (SDS)
r For all hazardous chemicals May group hazards on SDS (See appendix) r Readily available during normal work hours r Immediately accessible during emergencies What is the difference between “readily available” and “immediately accessible”? r Providing the SDS: 1. Initial shipment 2. First shipment after update r SDS Changes r Failure to provide the SDS What should you do if you do not receive an SDS for the chemical?

20 What’s best? Computer or paper?
r Remote work sites SDS may be kept at central location Must be readily available They must be immediately accessible What’s the best procedure for meeting the above criteria when at remote work sites? r Kept in any form Paper Computer What’s best? Computer or paper?

21 2. Hazards Identification - GHS Classification:
The SDS form The chemical manufacturer or importer preparing the safety data sheet must ensure that it is in English (although the employer may maintain copies in other languages as well). Sample GHS Safety Data Sheet 1. Identification Product Name: Chemical Stuff Synonyms: Methytrexil Solutionate CAS Number: Product Use: Organic Synthesis Manufacturer/Supplier: My Company Address: Any Street, Mytown, TX General Information: Transportation Emergency Number: CHEMTREC: 2. Hazards Identification - GHS Classification:

22 2. Hazards Identification - GHS Label
3. Composition / Information on Ingredients Component    CAS Number    Weight % Methyltoxy             80 (See Section 8 for Exposure Limits)

23 4. First Aid Measures Eye: Eye irritation. Flush immediately with large amounts of water for at least 15 minutes. Eyelids should be held away from the eyeball to ensure thorough rinsing. Get immediate medical attention. Skin: Itching or burning of the skin. Immediately flush the skin with plenty of water while removing contaminated clothing and shoes. Get immediate medical attention. Wash contaminated clothing before reuse. Inhalation: Nasal irritation, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, heart palpitations, breathing difficulty, cyanosis, tremors, weakness, red flushing of face, irritability. Remove exposed person from source of exposure to fresh air. If not breathing, clear airway and start cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Avoid mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Ingestion: Get immediate medical attention. Do not induce vomiting unless directed by medical personnel.

24 5. Fire Fighting Measures
Suitable Extinguishing Media: Use dry chemical, foam, or carbon dioxide to extinguish fire. Water may be ineffective but should be used to cool fire-exposed containers, structures and to protect personnel. Use water to dilute spills and to flush them away from sources of ignition. Fire Fighting Procedures: Do not flush down sewers or other drainage systems. Exposed firefighters must wear NIOSH-approved positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus with full-face mask and full protective clothing. Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards: Dangerous when exposed to heat or flame. Will form flammable or explosive mixtures with air at room temperature. Vapor or gas may spread to distant ignition sources and flash back. Vapors or gas may accumulate in low areas. Runoff to sewer may cause fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode in heat of fire. Vapors may concentrate in confined areas. Liquid will float and may reignite on the surface of water. Combustion Products: Irritating or toxic substances may be emitted upon thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition products may include oxides of carbon and nitrogen. 6. Accidental Release Measures Keep unnecessary people away; isolate hazard area and deny entry. Stay upwind; keep out of low areas. (Also see Section 8). Vapor protective clothing should be worn for spills and leaks. Shut off ignition sources; no flares, smoking or flames in hazard area. Small spills: Take up with sand or other noncombustible absorbent material and place into containers for later disposal. Large spills: Dike far ahead of liquid spill for later disposal. Do not flush to sewer or waterways. Prevent release to the environment if possible. Refer to Section 15 for spill/release reporting information.

25 7. Handling and Storage Handling -Do not get in eyes, on skin or on clothing. Do not breathe vapors or mists. Keep container closed. Use only with adequate ventilation. Use good personal hygiene practices. Wash hands before eating, drinking, smoking. Remove contaminated clothing and clean before re-use. Destroy contaminated belts and shoes and other items that cannot be decontaminated. Keep away from heat and flame. Keep operating temperatures below ignition temperatures at all times. Use non-sparking tools. Storage - Store in tightly closed containers in cool, dry, well-ventilated area away from heat, sources of ignition and incompatibles. Ground lines and equipment used during transfer to reduce the possibility of static spark-initiated fire or explosion. Store at ambient or lower temperature. Store out of direct sunlight. Keep containers tightly closed and upright when not in use. Protect against physical damage. Empty containers may contain toxic, flammable and explosive residue or vapors. Do not cut, grind, drill, or weld on or near containers unless precautions are taken against these hazards.

26 8. Exposure Controls / Personal Protection
Exposure Limits Component, Methyltoxy - TWA: 3 ppm (skin) - STEL: C 15 ppm (15 min.) Engineering Controls: Local exhaust ventilation may be necessary to control air contaminants to their exposure limits. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Eye Protection: Wear chemical safety goggles and face shield. Skin Protection: Avoid skin contact. Wear gloves impervious to conditions of use. Respiratory Protection: If exposure limits are exceeded, NIOSH approved respiratory protection should be worn. 9. Physical and Chemical Properties Flashpoint: 2oC (35oF) Autoignition Temperature: 480oC (896oF) Boiling Point: 77oC 760 mm Hg Melting Point: -82oC Vapor Pressure: mm 23oC Vapor Density: 1.7; (Air = 1) % Solubility in Water: 20ºC Pour Point: NA Molecular Formula: Mixture Weight: Mixture

27 9. Physical and Chemical Properties (Continued)
Odor/Appearance: Clear, colorless liquid with mild, pungent odor. Lower Flammability Limit: >3.00% Upper Flammability Limit: <15.00% Specific Gravity: 20oC % Volatile: 100 Evaporation Rate (Water=1): 5(Butyl Acetate =1) Viscosity: oC Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient: log Kow: 0.5 pH: 7, 8% aqueous solution Molecular Weight: Mixture 10. Stability and Reactivity Stability/Incompatibility: Incompatible with ammonia, amines, bromine, strong bases and strong acids. Hazardous Reactions/Decomposition Products: Thermal decomposition products may include oxides of carbon and nitrogen.

28 11. Toxicological Information
Signs and Symptoms of Overexposure: Eye and nasal irritation, headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, heart palpitations, difficulty breathing, cyanosis, tremors, weakness, itching or burning of the skin. Acute Effects: Eye Contact: may cause severe conjunctival irritation and corneal damage. Skin Contact: may cause reddening, blistering or burns with permanent damage. Harmful if absorbed through the skin. May cause allergic skin reaction. Inhalation: may cause severe irritation with possible lung damage (pulmonary edema). Ingestion: may cause severe gastrointestinal burns. Target Organ Effects: May cause gastrointestinal (oral), respiratory tract, nervous system and blood effects based on experimental animal data. May cause cardiovascular system and liver effects. Chronic Effects: based on experimental animal data, may cause changes to genetic material; adverse effects on the developing fetus or on reproduction at doses that were toxic to the mother. Methyltoxy is classified by IARC as group 2B and by NTP as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. OSHA regulates Methyltoxy as a potential carcinogen.

29 11. Toxicological Information (Continued)
Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure: preexisting diseases of the respiratory tract, nervous system, cardiovascular system, liver or gastrointestinal tract. Acute Toxicity Values Oral LD50 (Rat) = 100 mg/kg Dermal LD50 (Rabbit) = mg/kg Inhalation LC50 (Rat) = 200 ppm/4 hr., 1100 ppm vapor/1 hr Chronic Effects: based on experimental animal data, may cause changes to genetic material; adverse effects on the developing fetus or on reproduction at doses that were toxic to the mother. Methyltoxy is classified by IARC as group 2B and by NTP as reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. OSHA regulates Methyltoxy as a potential carcinogen. 12. Ecological Information LC50 (Fathead Minnows) = 9 mg/L/96 hr. EC50 (Daphnia) = 8.6 mg/L/48 hr. Bioaccumulation is not expected to be significant. This product is readily biodegradable.

30 13. Disposal Considerations
As sold, this product, when discarded or disposed of, is a hazardous waste according to Federal regulations (40 CFR 261). It is listed as Hazardous Waste Number Z000, listed due to its toxicity. The transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of this waste material must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR 262, 263, 264, 268 and 270. Disposal can occur only in properly permitted facilities. Refer to state and local requirements for any additional requirements, as these may be different from Federal laws and regulations. Chemical additions, processing or otherwise altering this material may make waste management information presented in the SDS incomplete, inaccurate or otherwise inappropriate. 14. Transport Information U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Proper Shipping Name: Methyltoxy Hazard Class: 3, 6.1 UN/NA Number: UN0000 Packing Group: PG 2 Labels Required: Flammable Liquid and Toxic International Maritime Organization (IMDG) Hazard Class: 3 Subsidiary 6.1

31 15. Regulatory Information
U.S. Federal Regulations Comprehensive Environmental Response and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA): Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): Clean Water Act (CWA): Clean Air Act (CAA): Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) Title III Information: SARA Section 311/312 (40 CFR 370) Hazard Categories: Immediate Hazard: X Delayed Hazard: X Fire Hazard: X Pressure Hazard: Reactivity Hazard: Component    CAS Number    Maximum % Methyltoxy             80 State Regulations California: Component    CAS Number    Maximum % Methyltoxy             80

32 15. Regulatory Information
International Regulations Canadian Environmental Protection Act: Canadian Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS): European Inventory of Existing Chemicals (EINECS): EU Classification: Phrases: R11: Highly flammable. R23/24/25: Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed. R37/38: Irritating to respiratory system and skin. R41: Risk of serious damage to eyes. 16. Other Information National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Ratings: This information is intended solely for the use of individuals trained in the NFPA system. Health: 3 Flammability: 3 Reactivity: 0 Revision Indicator: New SDS Disclaimer: The information contained herein is accurate to the best of our knowledge. ABC Inc. makes no warranty of any kind, express or implied, concerning the safe use of this material in your process or in combination with other substances.

33 OLD HCS 1994 MSDS ELEMENTS Identity
Physical and chemical characteristics Physical hazards Health hazards Primary Routes of Entry OSHA/ACGIH PELs National Toxicology Program on Carcinogens Safe handling precautions Control measures Emergency procedures Date of SDS preparation Name, address, telephone number

34 Information & Training
r When to train: 1. Initial assignment 2. Whenever a new hazard is introduced r Information includes: The requirements of the HCS 2012; Any operations in their work area where hazardous chemicals are present; and, The location and availability of the written hazard communication program, including the required list(s) of hazardous chemicals, and SDSs required by the HCS. r Specific training for those who work with hazardous chemical: 1. Methods and observations used to detect hazardous chemicals. 2. Physical and health hazards, simple asphyxiation, combustible dust, and pyrophoric gas hazards, and hazards not otherwise classified. 3. Measures employees take to protect themselves. 4. Specific company hazard communication program procedures. 5. May train hazards by group. r Best Training Methods Demonstrate proper use of PPE and how to use the chemical. Ask the employee questions to make sure they understand. Train where the chemical will be used.

35 OSHA Inspections Getting started Trade Secrets The written program
What the compliance officer will inspect: The written program Who’s responsible? Proper labeling Safety Data Sheets Information and Training “What are the procedures for...”? Trade Secrets Manufacturer, distributor cannot withhold chemical identity from health professional in an emergency. Getting started 1. Become familiar with the standard. 2. Identify responsible staff. 3. Identify hazardous chemicals in your workplace. 4. Prepare and implement a written plan. 5. Prepare and conduct a training program. 6. Monitor the program. Revise as needed.


37 Grouping Hazardous Chemicals
If your company uses many chemicals in the normal course of work, it may be impractical to train employees on each chemical to which they may be exposed. The hazard communication standard does allow employers to group chemicals by hazardous characteristics for the purpose of SDS maintenance and training. On the following pages are examples of hazardous chemical groupings. It is extremely important that employees who use hazardous chemicals on a regular basis are familiar with handling procedures, associated hazards, proper personal protective equipment, and emergency procedures for those chemicals. In an emergency, you will probably not have time to review response actions in the SDS. Bottom line... know your chemicals and know emergency procedures. Note: The following are examples only and may not be appropriate for your workplace. Be sure to develop hazardous chemical groupings based on the specific chemicals in use by your employer. Credits Portions of the information on the effects and forms of chemicals were provided in this workbook were obtained with permission from the manual, Chemical Health Hazards in the Oregon Forest Products Industry, University of Oregon Labor and Education Research Center, June Information is for training purposes only. Information of the various hazard groupings were obtained with permission from, HAZCOM, A Guide to the Hazard Communication Program of Kaiser Permanente - Northwest Region, 3rd edition, Information is for training purposes only.

38 Alcohol A colorless liquid that evaporates quickly and has a strong odor. Can be burned as fuel or used as a cleaning, disinfecting agent or solvent. Is the intoxicant ingredient in liquor (ethyl alcohol). These are extremely flammable liquids Ingestion: Long-term chronic effects have been well known (liver damage, dizziness, nausea, and blindness). Inhalation: Concentrated amounts can produce similar effects to ingestion. Skin/Eye contact: Vapors can cause eye irritation and extended contact with skin causes drying, chapping, and dermatitis. Chronic effects: Can cause degenerative changes in liver, kidney and brain. Gastritis and cirrhosis of the liver are possible. Known to be a CNS and respiratory depressant. Do not store large quantities of alcohol anywhere except in flammable-proof storage cabinet or area. Avoid prolonged inhalation of any vapors. Extremely volatile liquids (meaning they easily evaporate), so keep in closed containers. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Ethyl alcohol Methyl alcohol Isopropyl alcohol (Isopropanol) Definition Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

39 Chemotherapy Drugs Definition
Drugs are used in treatment of cancer patients. Can be liquid, powder, or tablet form. Medical treatment of patients. No physical hazards. Highly toxic. All are known to cause cancer in animals and are considered to be potential cancer agents in humans. May be absorbed through the skin. May cause eye problems and possible skin irritation. Use Biological Safety Cabinet for preparation. Wash thoroughly before eating, drinking, or smoking. No eating, drinking smoking, chewing gum, applying cosmetics or storage of food near preparation area. All used equipment should be placed in Hazardous Waste Container for incineration. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. CEENU Cytoxan Platinol Mexate Megace Mutamycin Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

40 Compressed Gases Definition
A gas or mixture of gases having, in container, an absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 70 deg. F., or an absolute pressure exceeding 104 psi at 130 deg. F., or a liquid having a vapor pressure exceeding 40 psi at 100 deg. F. Medical gases. Can be "explosive" if the gases escape quickly due to broken valves. They may be flammable or support combustion (i.e., oxygen). Inhalation concerns. Frostbite. Protect cylinders from physical damage. Do not allow temperatures to exceed 130 degrees F. Store upright. Well ventilated area is extremely important. When a spill or leak occurs, get exposed individual to fresh air, loosen their clothing. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Nitrous Oxide: Risk from chronic exposure. Environment should be regularly monitored to ensure that employees are not exposed to hazardous vapor concentrations. Possible problem in recovery rooms from patients exhaling. Oxygen: Prolonged breathing of high concentrations may lead to toxic effects involving the lungs, central nervous system, and eyes. Nitrogen: Can cause suffocation without warning by reduction of the oxygen level in the air. Ethylene Oxide: Can cause frostbite through skin or eye contact. Contact lenses should not be worn. This is considered to be a cancer and reproductive hazard. Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

41 Corrosives Definition
Corrosives: Liquid or solid that causes visible destruction or irreversible alterations in human skin tissue at the site of contact. Acid: Any compound that can react with a base to form a salt. pH: <7 (corrosive = 1-3). Base: Any substance that removes hydrogen ions from an acid and combines with it in a chemical reaction. pH: >7 (corrosive 11-14) Acid: Cleaning metals and other products; chemical reactions. Base: Manufacturing soap, chemical synthesis, washing powders, household drainpipe cleaning agents, blood sugar testing tablets. As the pH moves closer to "1" or "14", the more corrosive the properties. Generally considered to be nonflammable. Very reactive with each other and other chemicals. Ingestion: Causes severe and rapid skin damage, being destructive to any tissue. A corrosive chemical product causes more serious burns of the esophagus and upper GI than the granular products. Inhalation: Fumes from either concentrate can be irritating to respiratory tract. Skin or Eye Contact: All can burn the skin and are dependent on concentration and duration of contact. This category can produce some of the most severe chemical eye injuries -- conjunctivitis or corneal destruction. Effects of these chemicals are usually so immediate with concentrated chemicals that chronic effects are just residuals of corrosive damage. Never mix with other chemicals without proper procedures -- poisonous gases can be released through chemical reactions. Use concentrated solutions in well-ventilated areas (i.e., under hoods for some acids). Avoid any prolonged exposure to diluted substances. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Sulfuric acid Hydrochloric acid Bleach (Clorox) Nitric acid Ammonia Toilet bowl cleaners Oven cleaners Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

42 Flammables Definition
Flammable liquids have a flashpoint below 100 F. Flashpoint means the minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite. Flammable gases are gases which will ignite at less than 13% air or whose upper flammability limit is more than 12% of its lower limit. Flammable aerosols yield a flame projection exceeding 18 inches at full valve opening, or a flashback at any degree of valve opening. Flammable solid is a solid other than a blasting agent or explosive that is liable to cause fire through friction, absorption of moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which can be ignited readily and when ignited burns so vigorously and persistently as to create a serious hazard. It ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than one-tenth of an inch per second along its major axis. Medical gases. Fuels. Solvents. Important to know the flammability of gases -- but if unknown, treat as flammable. Usually all gases are explosive due to the fact they are compressed. Important to know flashpoint of products as they present a very real fire hazard if present in open containers near an ignition source. Inhalation concerns, irritants to both eyes and skin. Well-ventilated area is extremely important. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Combustible Liquids: Phenol, mineral spirits, methyl cellosolve, fuel oils Flammable Liquids: Gasoline, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethyl alcohol Flammable Gases: Butane, propane Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

43 Heavy Metals Definition
Heavy metal salts are very poisonous if taken internally because they destroy protein in the body. Found in a variety of products (see info on specific metals). Heavy metals are considered to be a major problem in the environment. There are often unrecognized, poorly treated and severe chronic and accumulative side effects. Primary route of entry is ingestion -- good hygiene is important on the job. The body is unable to rid itself of many of these heavy metals and they can accumulate and interfere with normal cellular functions. Good hygiene is imperative -- poisoning can result with careless, repeated massive skin contact. Careful waste disposal methods are essential to prevent environmental pollution. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Lead: Found in old paints. Colored comics in newspapers. Colored inserts in magazines. Storage batteries. Antiknock in gasolines. Lead Arsenite and Arsenite: Found in pesticides. Can be exposed through inhalation. Zinc: Often found in deodorants or disinfectants. Inhalation can result from welding, causing fevers, chills, vomiting. Mercury: Free metal -- ingesting is little threat. Inhalation: extreme hazard resulting in chronic effects if mercury spill is not cleaned up appropriately. Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

44 Oxidizers Definition A chemical that initiates or promotes combustion in other materials. Varied. It is not combustible, but it produces heat upon reaction with combustibles and may cause ignition. Increases the flammability of combustible, organic, and readily oxidizable materials. Inhalation: Vapors are corrosive and irritating to the respiratory tract. Inhalation of mist may burn the mucous membrane of the nose and throat. Ingestion: Corrosive and irritating to the mouth, throat and abdomen. Large doses may cause symptoms of abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea as well as blistering or tissue destruction. Skin Contact: Irritating in contact with the skin. Symptoms may include discoloration of skin and pain. Eye Contact: Vapors are very corrosive and irritating to the eyes. Symptoms include pain, redness, blurred vision. Splashes may cause tissue destruction. Chronic Effects: Persons with pre-existing skin disorders or eye problems or impaired respiratory function may be more susceptible to the effects of the substance. Use in well-ventilated areas. Maintain eye wash fountain and shower facilities in work area. Store in a cool, well-ventilated dark area separated from combustible substances, reducing agents, strong bases, and organics. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Hydrogen Peroxide, 30% Bleach Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

45 Petroleum Definition An oily, liquid solution, yellowish-green to black in color, occurring naturally in some rock formations. Distillation yields paraffin, kerosene, benzene, naptha, fuel oil, gasoline, etc. Wide uses as fuel sources, refrigerants, propellants, pesticides, lubricants, solvents, degreasers, food additives. General liquids which will burn and can explode. Vapors have been known to expand and split unvented containers. Inhalation: If prolonged, can cause a pneumonitis, pulmonary edema, and hemorrhage. Skin Contact: Can cause dermatitis (diesel fuel tends to be more irritating because of additives). Chronic Effects: Include anesthetic and central nervous system depression as well as lung damage. Appropriate storage and venting of containers is necessary. Use in well-ventilated areas and avoid prolonged inhalation. Wash off skin as soon as possible after contact. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Kerosene Gasoline Lighter Fluid Paraffin mixtures Fuel oil High Vacuum Grease Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

46 Pesticides Definition
A spray mixture used to kill insects, spiders, rodents, or other pests. Used to eliminate pests. Many are aerosol products and can rocket or explode in heat or fire. Inhalation: Product spray mist or fog may cause irritation to nose, throat and lungs if adequate ventilation is not employed. Chronic Effects: Aspiration of material into lungs can cause chemical pneumonitis which can be fatal. Pre-existing skin, eye, and lung disorders may be aggravated by exposure to these products. Use with adequate ventilation. Wash hands with soap and water before eating, smoking, drinking, or using toilet facilities. Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. Raid House and Garden Bug Killer Insect Killer Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

47 Solvents Definition An organic substance used for dissolving another substance. Are an important part of everyday life. Found in housekeeping, maintenance, hobby activities, and labs. Nearly all will burn and explode. Volatile solvents evaporate readily, with a small amount of liquid making a large amount of vapor or gas. Many solvent vapors are heavier than air and sink to the floor. May be the obscure cause of vague symptoms or serious disability -- all are toxic to varying degrees. Inhalation: Can cause damage to lungs or kidneys in high concentrations -- have a rapid narcotic, anesthetic action. Skin/Eye Contact: All can cause dermatitis by their action in removing normal skin oils by sensitizing and all will irritate the eye. Chronic Effects: many can cause cumulative systemic damage by repeated exposures to low but unsafe concentrations. Target organs -- blood and blood forming organs, liver, kidneys, nervous system. Use out doors or in well-ventilated area. Avoid splashes. Wash hands well after use and before eating or smoking. Keep pilot lights, sparking motors, cigarettes, or other ignition sources at a distance (volatile solvents evaporate readily). Follow SDS guidelines for specific chemicals. 2-butoxyethanol (Carpet protector, Formula 510, True Blue). 1,1,1,-trichloroethane (Stainless steel cleaner) Acetone Trichlorofluoroethane (Freon) Xylene Uses Physical Properties and Hazards Health Hazards Precautions with use Personal Protective Equipment Examples

48 Training Hazard Communication
Each employee who may be “exposed” to hazardous chemicals when working must be provided information and trained prior to initial assignment to work with a hazardous chemical, and whenever the hazard changes. “Exposure” or “exposed” under the rule means that “an employee is subjected to a hazardous chemical in the course of employment through any route of entry (inhalation, ingestion, skin contact or absorption, etc.) and includes potential (e.g., accidental or possible) exposure.” Information and training may be done either by individual chemical, or by categories of hazards (such as flammability, insecticides, herbicides, or shop chemicals). Information and training is a critical part of the hazard communication program. Information regarding hazards and protective measures are provided to workers through written labels and Safety Data Sheets. Through effective information and training, workers will learn to read and understand such information, determine how it can be obtained and used in their own workplaces, and understand the risks of exposure to the chemicals in their workplaces as well as the ways to protect themselves. You want to create a climate where workers feel free to ask questions. This will help you to ensure that the information is understood. Remember that the underlying purpose of the hazard communication rule is to reduce the incidence of chemical source illnesses and injuries. This will be accomplished by modifying behavior through the provision of hazard information and information about protective measures.

49 Hazard Communication Training Program Audit
Does the training cover all types of harmful chemicals employees may come in contact with under normal usage and foreseeable emergencies? Are your workers familiar with the different types of chemicals and the major hazards associated with them (i.e. solvents, pesticides, corrosives)? Are your employees aware of specific requirements in the CFR Hazard Communication Rules (Written hazard communication program, labeling, SDSs)? Does your program train employees in operations where hazardous chemicals are present and the location and availability of your written hazard communication program, including lists of chemicals and SDSs? Does your training program include the explanation of labels and warnings that have been established in their work area? Do your employees understand methods to detect the presence or release of chemicals in the workplace? Does your training program provide information on appropriate first aid procedures in the event of an emergency? Does the training include explanation of SDSs, and how employees can obtain and use the information? Have you worked out a system to ensure that new employees are trained? Have you developed a system to make sure that additional training is provided if a new hazardous substance is introduced into the work area? Do you have a system to ensure that current (up-to-date) SDSs are in work areas where the chemicals are used? If you become aware of new hazards relating to the chemical in use, do you have a system for informing employees? If you have employees who only perform hand labor operations, have you provided them with the OSHA brochure, information as to work areas where chemicals are present, access to the written program, access to the SDSs and met the training requirements of the Worker Protection Standard?

50 The heaviest element known to science was recently discovered.
Optional Handout The heaviest element known to science was recently discovered. Investigators at a major research institution recently discovered the heaviest element known to science and have tentatively named it Administratium. Administratium has no protons or electrons, thus having an atomic number of 0. It has, however, 1 neutron, 125 assistant neutrons, 75 vice neutrons and 111 assistant vice neutrons, giving it an atomic mass of 312. These 312 particles are held together by a force that involves the continuous exchange of meson-like particles called morons. They are surrounded by vast quantities of lepton-like particles called peons. Since it has no electrons, Administratium is inert. However, it cannot be deleted chemically, as it impedes every reaction it comes into contact with. According to the discoverers, a minute amount of Administratium caused one reaction to take over four days to complete when it would have normally occurred in less than a second. Administratium has a half-life of approximately three years. However, it does not decay in the usual way, but instead undergoes a reorganization in which a portion of the assistant neutrons, vice neutrons and assistant vice neutrons exchange places. In fact, Administratium's mass will actually increase over time, since with each reorganization some of the morons inevitably become neutrons, forming new isotopes. This characteristic of moron promotion leads some scientists to speculate that Administratium is spontaneously formed whenever moron concentration reaches a certain level. This hypothetical quantity is referred to as the Critical Morass.


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