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Factors Influencing Enzyme Action

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Presentation on theme: "Factors Influencing Enzyme Action"— Presentation transcript:

1 Factors Influencing Enzyme Action
Substrate Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex Substrate Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex

2 Enzyme reactions enzyme + substrate enzyme + products
enzyme-substrate complex enzyme + products

3 Factors that affect enzyme rates of reaction
An enzyme’s rate of reaction is measured by the amount of substrate converted to a product per minute. An enzyme’s activity can be affected by: General environmental factors, such as temperature and pH. Cofactors and coenzymes. Enzyme and substrate concentration which affects the saturation of the active site. Inhibitors.

4 What is the effect of temperature on enzyme function?
Optimal temperature for typical human enzyme enzyme of thermophilic (heat-tolerant bacteria) Temperature (°C) Optimal temperature for two enzymes 20 40 60 80 100 Rate of reaction Optimal pH for pepsin (stomach enzyme) Optimal pH for trypsin (intestinal enzyme) pH Optimal pH for two enzymes 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 What is the effect of temperature on enzyme function? What is the effect of pH on enzyme function?

5 1. Environmental Factors
Each enzyme has an optimal temperature in which it can function. Each enzyme has an optimal pH in which it can function. The wrong temperature of pH can denature an enzyme, which means the enzyme proteins shape is destroyed.

6 2. Cofactors and Coenzymes
Cofactors are nonprotein inorganic enzyme helpers. For example, metal ions like iron in hemoglobin hold oxygen. Coenzymes are organic cofactors. For example, vitamins like niacin which serves as an electron acceptor.

7 Example of Cofactor Enzyme Activation: Binding of one oxygen to hemoglobin activates other sites to enhance oxygen binding at the three other sites. 7

8 3a. Enzyme Concentration
What does the graph tell us about the effect of increasing [enzyme]? Rate of Reaction Enzyme Concentration Increasing the [enzyme] means the rate of reaction keeps increasing.

9 3b. Substrate Concentration
What does the graph show us about [substrate]? Increasing [substrate] only increases the reaction rate until all the enzyme active sites are in use.

10 4. Enzyme Inhibitors Competitive inhibitors bind to the active site of an enzyme, competing with the substrate. Noncompetitive inhibitors bind to another part of an enzyme, causing the enzyme to change shape and making the active site less effective. Noncompetitive inhibition is also called allosteric regulation.

11 LE 8-19 A substrate can normally bind to the active site of an enzyme.
Normal binding A competitive Inhibitor mimics the substrate, competing for the active site. Competitive inhibitor Competitive inhibition A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme away from the active site, altering the shape of the enzyme so that its active site no longer functions. Noncompetitive inhibitor Noncompetitive inhibition

12 AZT and AIDS AZT is the first retroviral drug approved to fight the HIV virus. It is a competitive inhibitor for the enzyme reverse transcriptase. 12

13 Allosteric Regulation of Enzymes
Allosteric regulation is the term used to describe cases where an enzyme’s function is affected by the binding of a regulatory molecule at a different site than the active site. Allosteric regulation may either inhibit or stimulate an enzyme’s activity. Usually the end product of a long series of reactions that make a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme near the beginning of the pathway. This way when the [product] is high the chemical reactions leading to the product are slowed down.

14 Allosteric Regulation

15 Homework Read MHR p 41 – 50 Do p 54 # 1 – 11, 13
Adapt and redraw the diagram on p43 to illustrate an anabolic reaction instead of a catabolic reaction. Note: anabolic = synthesis catabolic = hydrolysis or breakdown


17 Feedback Inhibition Initial substrate (threonine) Active site
available Threonine in active site Enzyme 1 (threonine deaminase) Isoleucine used up by cell Intermediate A Feedback inhibition Enzyme 2 Active site of enzyme 1 can’t bind theonine pathway off Intermediate B Enzyme 3 Intermediate C Isoleucine binds to allosteric site Enzyme 4 Intermediate D Enzyme 5 End product (isoleucine) 17

18 Induced Fit Model of Enzyme Action
Substrates Enzyme Products Substrates enter active site; enzyme changes shape so its active site Holds the substrates (induced fit). Substrates held in active site by weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds. Active site acts on substrates Substrates are converted into products. Products are released. Active site is available for two new substrate molecules. Quick Review of Induced Fit Model of Enzyme Action Enzyme-substrate complex

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