Why practice Beef Quality Assurance principles? To ensure that your cattle are managed in a manner that will result in a safe and wholesome products for the consumer and to strengthen consumer confidence It is driven by Consumers, Producers & Government Summary of KY-BQA Concepts
I.M. & SQ SQ Courtesy of Ohio State University IMIntramuscular SQSubcutaneous (under skin) Beef Audits have found a negative relationship between meat tenderness and injection sites even if no visible lesions are present Give all injections in front of the Shoulder
Using Vaccines and Antibiotics Read and follow all directions found on the label – Using antibiotics differently than specified by the label is considered “Extra Label” and requires a veterinarian prescription and valid Veterinarian/Client/Patient relationship (VCPR) – Practice judicious use Store in a clean location and if refrigerated do not store on the door of the refrigerator (less temperature fluctuations) When reconstituting vaccines, – use a transfer needle or separate syringe and needle – Do not shake – gently swirl or rock back and forth to mix.
Keep Modified-Live Vaccines COOL! Once reconstituted, ML vaccines are effective for about 45 minutes Keep them cool and out of direct sunlight If mishandled, vaccine becomes “water” Do not use alcohol/disinfectant to “clean” needles/syringes – use disposable or boil
Using Vaccines and Antibiotics If given a choice for route of administration – chose SQ Use separate syringes for each product given – Even a trace amount of killed vaccine can harm effectiveness of MLV !!! Use separate needles and syringes – Inject no more than 10 cc per injection site (Separate injection sites by at least a hand width) Use the appropriate gauge (Diameter of needle) and length of needle dependent on: – SQ verse IM, – size of animal, and – thickness of injectable product !!!! NO Larger Needle Used than Necessary!!!! 14-gauge is least desirable
Table 2-1. Determining proper needle gauge based on the route of administration, animal size, and viscosity 1 of fluid. Fluid Viscosity 1 SQ Injection (¾ to 1 inch long needle) IM Injection (1 to 1½ inch long needle) IV Injection (1½ inch long needle) Animal Size (lb) <300 300- 700>700<300 300- 700>700<300 300- 700>700 Needle Gauge Thin 1818-161620-1818-16 1616-14 Thick 18-1616 1816 16-14 Select the needle to fit the cattle size (the smallest practical size without bending). 1 An example of a thin viscosity fluid: saline; thick: oxytetracycline 600 lbs steer- thick liquid SQ
Using Vaccines and Antibiotics Needle Use and Handling – Change needles at least every 10-15 head or with every automatic syringe refill – To prevent spread of blood-borne diseases (BLV and anaplasmosis), new needle and rectal sleeve used for each animal – Change needles that are bent, contaminated by dirt or manure, or if needle becomes burred – IF NEEDLE BREAKS OFF IN ANIMAL --- REMOVE IMMEDIATELY
Purchasing Feeds Ruminant-derived animal protein sources (Meat and Bone Meal from cattle, sheep, goats, and other ruminants) cannot be fed under current federal law Extra-label use of feed additives, often fed to enhance growth and feed efficiency, is illegal and strictly prohibited by producers, veterinarians, or nutritionists Do not store feeds in areas chemicals are stored or use pesticide containers to feed cattle Maintain feed records for minimum of 2 years
Remember When Transporting Cattle Evaluate cattle for illness and severe lameness DO NOT LOAD animals that are borderline non- ambulatory or downer animals, severely lame or sick cattle Disabled or downer animals are not allowed in the food chain and SHOULD NOT be transported to the livestock marketing or harvest facility When handling cattle- use paddles or sticks with flags to move cattle– do not poke or slap cattle with sticks
Marketing Cull Cows and Bulls Bottom Line– Market cattle in a timely manner – Severely lame or weak cows should not be sold, because they will likely not make it to the slaughter facility. – When deciding if a cow should be sold for slaughter, consider that she will have an 8 hour or more trip on a trailer and must be able to walk off of the trailer and into the facility to be acceptable for human consumption.
Maintain ALL Written Records for at least two years