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© CREI, Università Roma Tre Programmes to Promote Regional Innovations Systems? Carlo Pietrobelli Direttore del CREI, Università Roma Tre IILA – CESPI, Roma 1 Luglio
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 2 Regional Innovation Systems the rationale for a Regional Innovation System (RIS) stems from the existence of: technological trajectories based on sticky knowledge and localized learning, and knowledge creating organizations. RIS : the institutional infrastructure supporting innovation and its diffusion within the production structure of a region (Asheim and Gertler, 2005: 299)
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 3
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 4 big The big question: Can policies support and nurture, or even create, a RIS? Support to RIS is often the indirect objective of other programmes targeting one of the three conceptual dimensions: Enterprise development: programs targeting the productive sector and enterprises, even if their main scope is promoting S&T, or a specific territory. Science and technology. With sophisticated technologies and new industries, collaborative research necessary for invention, innovation and commercialization. S&T&I Programmes also indirectly target a RIS. Regional development. Local assets are essential to promote local development. E.g. assisting local authorities and agencies to adopt a more active and coordinated approach to strengthen the innovative abilities of local business and promote systematic learning.
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 5 Table 1 – Categorization of Programs to Promote RIS Final objective Means for RIS: Type of programs Definition and Rationale RegionalInnovationSystem Technology Transfer firms lack access to relevant research and technological knowledge innovation requires knowledge from different fields. innovation via users-producers exchange of knowledge Clusters Innovative clusters with strong territorial identity Often mainly focused on innovation. Role of other local organizations. University- Industry Linkages role of research organizations, partnership in S&T&I collaborative projects with enterprises pre-competitive research for productive sector Programmes with a clear territorial focus promote interaction among different entities (Governments, public organizations, research centres, enterprises) that operate in a specific territorial context
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 6 1.The European Commission Inno-Policy Trendchart ( europe.eu/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.display&topicID=52&parentID=52 ). europe.eu/index.cfm?fuseaction=page.display&topicID=52&parentID=52 2. The ECLAC Science and Technology for Development (CYTDES) project ( / info-instrumento). / 3.Erawatch ( ), EC DG for Research and the Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS). 4.The Inter-American Development Bank (IADB) and The World Bank (WB) ( and ) under the link projects Sources of Information Databases, papers and documents on projects to promote innovation, S&T, enterprise development, or territorial development, but all sharing a RIS approach. They include:
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 7 NoTitle of the programCountry Prevailing stream of policy Technology transfer (TT) 1The India National Agricultural Innovation Project (NAIP)IndiaS&T 2Tekes Technology Programmes. This includes: RAPID (No 3) and NETS (No.34)FinlandS&T 3RAPID, Subprogram of Tekes Technology Progr. Grant and LoansFinlandS&T 4Centres of Expertise in FinlandFinlandS&T and RD 5RIS +, ToscanaItaliaRD 6Thematic Innovation Stimulation (VIS-TIS)BelgiumS&T and RD 7BioRegioGermanyS&T and RD 8Technological Modernization Program IIArgentinaS&T 9Technological Modernization Program III (FONTAR)ArgentinaS&T 10Competitividad del Cluster Provincia Santa Fe ArgentinaArgentinaRD 11Programa de desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica PDITChileS&T and ED 12Plastic and Rubber Training and Research ProgramColombiaS&T 13Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Venture CorporationMalaysiaS&T 14Hard Disk Drive ClusterThailandED 15Thailand Science Park (TSP)ThailandS&T 16Programma Estatal de Ciencia y Tecnología del Estado de JaliscoMexicoS&T Territorial focus 17ASTERItalyRD 18NRC Technology clustersCanadaS&T and RD 19GA-networkingGermanyRD
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 8 20ARENA - Innovation in Networks NorwayNorwayRD and S&T 21VINNVÄXT - Regional growth through dynamic innovation systemsSwedenRD and S&T 22Innovative Business Groupings Programme (AEI)SpainRD 23Clusters de Santa Catarina, The textile and the ceramic clusterBrazilED Cluster 24Yorkshire Forward Cluster NetworkUKED and RD 25InnoRegioGermanyED and RD 26Industrial cluster Program METIJapanS&T and RD 27Technological DistrictsItalyED and RD 28Tsukuba Research and Academic City (TRAC)JapanS&T 29Desarrollo productivo y competitividad en MendozaArgentinaRD 30Desarrollo de cadenas productivas para MIPYME export.s, GuanajuatoMexicoED 31Centro de Innovación Mex. y Fondo Venture Capital alta Tec., GuanajuatoMexicoS&T 32Cluster de TI en Recife, Porto Digital y inserción de grandes empresasBrazilS&T University-Industry (U-I) linkages 33TechnopolisJapanS&T 34MAGNETIsraelS&T 35NETS - Networks of the Future Subprogram of TekesFinlandS&T 36UY promoción de la innovación para la competitividadUruguayS&T 37Incentivos universidades-empresas, FNDCTBrazilS&T and ED 38Alianzas Estratégicas y Redes de innovación para la Competitividad (AERI´s)-MexicoED 39Uruguay Innova - within EC -Uruguay– NIP of CooperationUruguayS&T
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 9 Evaluations as a tool to understand and learn Evaluations are the most useful tool to assess whether or not a policy or a programme has been successful. seldom availableshort not enough deep and structured impact independent … but seldom available, and if they are, they are often short and not enough deep and structured. Moreover, they hardly contain an analysis of the impact of the program, rarely performed by independent evaluators. In absence of proper evaluations: the framework in which the program is applied, analysis of program implementation and of the instruments, the contextual factors, the assessment of the so-called innovation drivers: human resources, knowledge building and knowledge sharing and entrepreneurship (OECD, 2001).
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 10 Lessons and insights Clarity of motivation for the intervention (at national as well as regional level). Specialization of the program both in the definition of the areas of intervention and/or of the specific functions addressed. Setting objectives consistent with the time frame of the program. All the short term objectives should be conceptualized as operational tools functional to reach the long term objectives. Public support is of crucial importance: public goods it finances and helps establish public goods (e.g. agencies, specific S&T funds, research centres and laboratories …); governance guidelines for linkages and coordination it enhances a flexible and appropriate governance of the system setting the guidelines for linkages and coordination; credibility public commitment raises the credibility.
© CREI, Università Roma Tre 11 Lessons and insights A triple helix approach of university, industry and government. Continuous flow of ideas and knowledge are enhanced. Private sector engagement in programs design and implementation (long-lasting partnerships and the necessary resilience). Coherence and utilization of local assets and measures. Avoid duplications and overlapping. Cluster intermediaries for information and knowledge sharing. Entering into new sectors or strengthening existing traditional ones? completely different challenges. Perhaps easier a catching up also for RIS. Importance of R&D cooperation. The existence of prestigious research organizations in the region.
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