Presentation on theme: "Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 By Sheryl Heichel. What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile diabetes, is a disease in which the."— Presentation transcript:
What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes, also referred to as juvenile diabetes, is a disease in which the pancreas does not secrete insulin. The exact cause is unknown, but thought to have genetic and environmental factors. Most often occurs in childhood, but can also develop late 30's and early 40's.
Pathophysiology Caused by autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. Hyperglycemia presents after the majority of cells are destroyed and then diabetes can be diagnosed.
Pathophysiology Continued In 85% of cases, the individual has islet cell antibodies present; glutamic acid decarboxylase is the enzyme most commonly targeted by these antibodies. Type 1 diabetes is often found in those already suffering from an autoimmune disease.
Signs and Symptoms Diagnosed through a blood or ketone test. Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, increased blood and urine glucose and ketones. Left untreated it can be fatal. Hypoglycemia : seizures, hunger, fainting, weakness, coma. Hyperglycemia: increased thirst and urination, ketoacidosis(vomiting, dry skin, abdominal pain, rapid breathing), coma, organ damage.
Treatment Insulin must be used to process the glucose from meals and normalize protein and lipid metabolism. Injections or pumps are used. Types of insulin: Rapid-acting: works about 15 minutes after injecting; works for 2-4 hours Regular or short acting: ~30 after injecting; works for 3-6 hours Intermediate-acting: 2 to 4 hours after injecting; works for 12-18 hours Long-acting: takes several hours but keeps levels even over a day