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Published byBrianne Cameron Modified over 7 years ago
Ordering When ordering tiles the following need to be considered. Contractual Requirements Statutory Requirements Common Law Liability (i.e. Fit for Purpose)
Contractual Requirements Personal preference such as – Material Type – Ceramic, Porcelain and Natural Stone. – Size – 25mm x 25mm to 900mm x 600 or even larger slabs – Shape – Square, Rectangular – Colour
Statutory Requirements Volume 2 – Class 1 & 10
Statutory Requirements Volume 1 – Class 2 to 9 – Clause D2.10, D2.13 & D2.14 – non-slip" and "non-skid" surfaces must be installed for pedestrian ramps, stair treads and landings.
Slip Resistance Standards Australia & CSIRO Handbook HB 197
Willoughby Council DCP – Part C6
Common Law Duty of Care Damages will apply if Breached
Types Ceramic Porcelain Natural Stones
Ceramic Tiles Tiles are made from clay, sand, feldspar, quartz Pressed with forces from a few MPa to 650 Mpa Fired in a Kiln, Temperature & Length will determine Hardness
Ceramic Tiles Glazed Finished applied Tile is then re-fired Process is then repeated till all surface finishes are complete.
Glazed Tile Glazed ceramic tiles are coated with glass- forming minerals and ceramic stains. Glazed tile offers better stain and moisture resistance High gloss finishes can be slippery and scratch easily, while matte or textured finishes help with traction and scratches
Unglazed As they are not glazed they don’t offer protection against stains compared to glazed ceramic tile. These are typically used in external applications Unglazed tiles do have good slip resistance, however they require sealing to resist staining.
Porcelain Tiles Porcelain tile is comprised of 50% feldspar Highly Compressed Fired at Higher Temperature Very Hard Tile
Porcelain Tiles Resistant to Mechanical Damage Can withstand very high temperatures Porcelain is non absorbent Colour permeates the entire tile
Grout There are two types of grout commonly used for home installations: Portland cement-based and Epoxy-based. Epoxy is Stain & Chemical resistant. May be specified by Councils DCP’s such as in some instances Food Preparation area requiring Epoxy Grouts
Natural Stones Granite or marble tiles are sawn on both sides and then polished or finished on the facing up side, so that they have a uniform thickness. Other natural stone tiles such as slate are typically "riven" (split) on the facing up side so that the thickness of the tile varies slightly from one spot on the tile to another and from one tile to another
Marble Marble is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, most commonly limestone or dolomite rock. Metamorphism causes variable recrystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains.
Marble Degradation Marble is particularly sensitive to degradation by acid chemicals Rain with pollutants is Acidic Marble is a softer natural rock & will wear
Granite Very Hard 200mpa Density 2650 to 2750 kg/m 3 Granites usually have a medium- to coarse- grained texture
Durability Low Maintenance Resistant to Alkalines Constant Exposure to Acids will degrade – Especially glazed surfaces
How tile was fired will affect hardness
Durability - Classes
Other Durability Issues
Storage Ceramic tile is a very fragile product and must be stored in an area that it will be safe from getting hit by other objects Try to leave in its original packaging. Do not remove any plastic cellophane wrapping if the tile is wrapped in it. Cover tile that is stored directly outside. Tile can be stored directly in the elements. Covering the tile with a tarp or other plastic covering will keep the elements out In very cold environments Allow the tile to acclimate to the room it will be installed in if the tile is stored outside during the winter. The tile should be allowed to warm up to room temperature before it is installed so it will not crack.
Transport Tiles should be transported in a vertical position to avoid the tiles be cracked by bending. The tiles should be secured so they do not slide or bounce during transport
Testing Wet Pendulum Test Pendulum Mean BPN AS/NZS 4586 Classification AS/NZS 4663 Notional* contribution of the floor surface to the risk of slipping when wet Four STRL > 54 > 44VVery Low 45 - 54 40 - 44W Low 35 - 44 -X Moderate 25 - 34 -Y High < 25 -Z Very High
Testing DRY FLOOR FRICTION SLIP RESISTANCE TEST Floor friction tester mean value AS/NZS 4586 Classification AS/NZS 4663 Notional*contribution of thefloor surface to the risk of slipping when dry ≥ 0.40FModerate to very low < 0.40GHigh to very high
Testing WET BAREFOOT RAMP SLIP RESISTANCE TEST Mean Angle of Inclination (Degrees) AS/NZS 4586 Classification ≥ 12A ≥ 18B ≥ 24C
Testing OIL WET RAMP SLIP RESISTANCE TEST
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