Presentation on theme: "Motivation –Theory and Practice"— Presentation transcript:
1Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeLearning Objectives:Discuss homeworkTo review ways of improving job satisfaction and the level of employee motivation at workTo understand and be able to apply to given business situations the motivational theories of writers such as:Taylor (Scientific Management )Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs )McGregor (Theory X and Theory Y )
2Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticePerformance related payCommissionBonusMETHODS OF PAYMENTWagesTime ratePiece rateSalariesProfit-sharing
3Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeJOB SATISFACTIONcan be increased by…Job RotationWorkers swap specific tasks for a limited time to increase the variety of the work they do and their skill levelJob EnrichmentTasks are added that require more skill and/or responsibility. This may include additional training and challenge in the workplaceJob EnlargementExtra tasks of a similar level are added to a worker’s job description to increase the variety of work being done
4Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeMOTIVATION IS……….The reason why employees want to work hard and work effectively for the businessIs there more to motivating an employee than just …….money
5Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeChance to be creativeFringe benefitsholidaysRecognition and prestigeA reasonable level of payA clean and safe work environmentChance to take responsibilityMotivating factors that influence job satisfaction and work productivityJob securityChance for promotionTasks that provide a sense of achievement (challenge)Working with friendly colleaguesInteresting and stimulating tasksIndependence at work
6Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeA well-motivated workforce can provide the following advantages:Better productivity (amount produced per employee). This can lead to lower unit costs of production and so enable a firm to sell its product at a lower priceLower levels of absenteeism as the employees are content with their working livesLower levels of staff turnover (the number of employees leaving the business). This can lead to lower training and recruitment costsImproved industrial relations with trade unionsContented workers give the firm a good reputation as an employer so making it easier to recruit the best workersMotivated employees are likely to improve product quality or the customer service associated with a product
7Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeTAYLOR (1911) - Scientific ManagementScientific management is a philosophy and set of methods that stressed the scientific study and organization of work at operational level for improving efficiency. It is associated with Frederick Winslow Taylor who is called the “father of Scientific Management.”Scientific Management has contributed the following techniques that are used even today:Scientific method of doing work.Planning tasks.Standardization.Specialization and division of labour.This approach has been criticised that David McClelland dehumanized workers by treating them as mere factors of production. David believed that workers could be motivated by mere need for money i.e. economic gains by the form of higher wages. In reality, workers need a sense of job security, social fulfillment and a challenging job, other than a good pay.
8Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeMaslowSelf-actualisationSelf-esteemLove and BelongingMASLOW’SHEIRARCHYSafety NeedsPhysiological Needs
9Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeMcGregorTheory YPeople are responsible, committed and enjoy having control over their workTheory XFor people to work effectively and efficiently they must be strictly controlled
10Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeFor each theory:What is the central idea behind the theory?Describe the theory briefly in your own wordsDo you think that the theory works?What are some limitations or criticisms of thetheory?
11Motivation –Theory and Practice Business StudiesMotivation –Theory and PracticeAchievementPromotionRecognitionResponsibilityMotivators – Factors which motivate workersWhat is Herzberg’s theory?WORKPayConditionsCompany policyTreatment/relationship with managementHygiene factors – factors that prevent dissatisfaction