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Political Systems – Major Concepts

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Presentation on theme: "Political Systems – Major Concepts"— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Systems – Major Concepts

2 The State a body of people, living in a defined space,
with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority, and with an organization to do this.

3 Population Territory Sovereignty Government
living in a defined space, a body of people, Sovereignty Government and with an organization to do this. with the power to make and enforce laws without having to check with any higher authority,

4 Population Definition: People who are the members or citizens of a state The size of the population doesn’t matter Population has a big influence on the type of government chosen by the state: Is the population rural or urban? What do people do for jobs? Do people get along or disagree on basic issues?

5 Territory Definition: the area in which a state’s rule applies
A state must have set boundaries, but they are not always agreed on. Boundaries can change in three ways: war – people win or lose territory negotiation – people agree to trade territory purchase – states can buy territory from other states

6 Sovereignty Definition: the ability to rule absolutely within a given territory Because of sovereignty… states can set their own foreign policy and agendas. states are all equal in theory, but in reality that isn’t always the case.

7 Government Definition: the organization that makes and enforces the laws Government has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public…

8 Government Definition: the organization that makes and enforces the laws Government has many roles that all involve making public policy, but there are four main ways their governing affects the public… Keeping Order Protecting the Country Providing Services Making Economic Decisions

9 World Geography Types of Government
Start ppt. click link when it comes up minimize and you will be back to cover side. Music only. llhammon llhammon Fall 2010

10 What is Government? It is an organization that people set up to protect their community and to enforce its rules. What is the role of government? The role of government is : To protect lives, Liberties, and property of members of the community. Provide services that the people cannot provide on their own. In order to use their authority governments are given power – the authority to use force.

11 Types of Government •Monarchy (probably oldest form of government)
“divine right” Constitutional Monarchy •Republic •Democracy Direct Democracy Representative Democracy Modern Democracies •Dictatorship • Totalitarian Systems • Theocracy

12 What is a Monarchy? The ruler inherits power. When the ruler dies, power is automatically passed to one of the monarch’s children or close relatives. How do these rulers govern? These monarchs – kings, emperors, or sultans – surround themselves with followers and advisors who help them govern. *In the older forms of monarchy the king/queen claimed absolute power. They held this power by “divine right” or the will of God. Most people had no rights or freedoms except those that the monarch allowed. “Divine Right of Kings” Louis XIV of France A 19th century portrayal of Emperor Jinmu - Japan

13 Current Monarchies in the World
What is a constitutional monarchy? Monarchs that share power with an elected legislature. The people enjoy many traditional, protected rights. Usually the monarch serves as the symbolic head of state while elected members of Parliament govern the country. Current Monarchies in the World

14 World Geography Types of Government
Qaboos Bin Said Al Said – Sultan of Oman Imperial household of Japan (ko shitsu) oldest continuous hereditary monarchy in the world. Akihito. Queen Elizabeth - United Kingdom-constitutional monarchy Some monarchs in the world today. Sheikh_Sabah_Al‑Ahmad_Al‑Jaber_Al‑Sabah. Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy Mswati III of Swaziland, Africa’s last absolute monarch in the world. Cambodia‑Sihamoni Cambodia is a constitutional monarchy llhammon Fall 2010

15 What is a Republic? A republic is a government without a king or a queen. Usually when a country overturns its monarchy it will become a republic. It chooses representatives to make decisions. An example would be the United States.

16 Branches of United States Government

17 Government authority is based on the will of the people.
What is a Democracy? Government authority is based on the will of the people. People either vote on issues directly, or they elect representatives who make government decisions for them. People have certain rights – whereas they can criticize the government freely. What types of democracy has the world seen? Direct Democracy Representative Democracy Modern Democracies

18 What was a Direct Democracy?
The very first known democracy was in ancient Greece in the 5th c BCE. Democracy is Greek for “people-power.” Citizens assembled to make decisions for their city-states. They voted on these issues directly. This is where the term direct-democracy evolved from. What was a Direct Democracy? Click the link for short history of Greek democracy

19 What is a Representative Democracy?
It is a democracy where different social groups elected their own representatives, who then met in assemblies. Nobles were represented in the Senate Government power was divided between two branches and voting was on various issues. Romans were the first to develop the representative democracy. Click the link for short history on representative democracy. Seeing it in action.

20 What is a Dictatorship? System of government in which a single person or small group have complete power over others. A dictator does not inherit power like a king. Either seizes control by force or is placed into a position of authority by others. Some areas of the world like Latin America and Africa achieved their independence and became one-party states where the military leaders became dictators. They would use their power by either military means or police means to block opponents from voting. Sometimes arresting and torturing opponents.

21 Main advantage is that decisions can be made quickly.
Dictators are free to do as they please, but other citizens have few rights. Ordinary citizens have very little influence over governmental policies. Main advantage is that decisions can be made quickly. Sometimes elections are held to obtain legitimacy for their government. People are afraid to criticize or oppose the dictator. Opposition parties are not permitted. Countries marked in dark colors are authoritarian, and most often dictatorships. Most of current dictatorships are in Africa and Asia.

22 World Geography Types of Government
New Leader in power Click link…when music starts minimize and you are on this slide. Talk about dictators. Link Plays music only. Starting in Left hand corner going across, then back to left hand corner again. Kim Jong II of North Korea (deceased – son in power) Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe Than Shwe of Burma Omar Hassan Al-Bashir of Sudan Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov of Turkmenistan Isaias Afwerki of Eritrea Islam Karimov of Uzbekistan Mahmoud Ahmadinejad of Iran Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia Hu Jintao of China Muammar Al-Qaddafi of Libya (overthrown during Arab Spring – deceased) Bashar Al-Assad of Syria (battle to stay in power) Idriss Deby of Chad Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo of Equatorial Guinea Hosni Mubarak of Egypt (ousted February 2011) Yahya Jammeh of Gambia Hugo Chavez of Venezuela Blaise Compaore of Burkina Faso Yoweri Museveni of Uganda Paul Kagame of Rwanda Raul Castro of Cuba Aleksandr Lukashenko of Belarus Paul Biya of Cameroon and of course, the Emperor and Darth Vader from Star Wars. The Worst of the Worst There are at least 40 dictators around the world today, and approximately 1.9 billion people live under the grip of the 23 autocrats on this list alone. llhammon Fall 2010

23 World Geography Types of Government
Link shows failed state index. Interactive. Use the link below to compare the two maps. llhammon Fall 2010

24 What are Totalitarian Systems?
The government controls all aspects of an individual’s life. People can only belong to organizations controlled by the government. No separate political parties, labor unions, or other organizations are allowed. Government either controls or prohibits all churches and religious groups. One leader or political party maintains total control over all aspects of society. This control extends to the police, military, communications, economy and education system. Government also controls television, radio, and newspapers. What are the rights of the people under a Totalitarian system?

25 Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union
Government censors all books or articles criticizing the government. Dissent is suppressed, citizens terrorized by secret police. People who oppose the government arrested and sent to labor camps or killed. Joseph Stalin – Soviet Union Adolf Hitler - Germany Saddam Hussein - Iraq

26 What is a Theocracy? Government run by religious leaders. It is an old form of government, like a monarchy. What are the characteristics of a theocracy? Government claims to be directed by God, or divinely blessed. No legal separation between church and state Citizens of other faiths are often excluded or expelled. What is the history of theocracy? Ancient times rulers were often priests.

27 World Geography Types of Government
Examples of Theocracy throughout history. In the Middle Ages, the head of the Catholic Church, the Pope, ruled extensive territories in Italy. The Byzantine Empire was ruled by an emperor who was also head of the church. Pharaohs of ancient Egypt were believed to be gods. Iran, has both a theocratic and democratic government. The President and representatives are elected but are controlled by the Supreme Leader. Picture left to right. Pharaoh of Egypt Emperor Justintine – Byzantine Empire Pope Gregory VII of Rome Puritan minister Supreme leader of Iran, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei. Interprets religious law (Islamic Law – Sharia), can dismiss the President, and can declare war. In early colonial times, Puritan ministers helped govern Massachusetts. The Supreme Leader is an Islamic cleric appointed for life. llhammon Fall 2010

28 Resources.
Theme for dictator page. Failed state interactive website. Article for the Worst Dictators.

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