Presentation on theme: "Monotheistic Religion Judaism, Christianity, and Islam."— Presentation transcript:
Monotheistic Religion Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
New Vocabulary: Polytheistic: Believing in more than one god. Monotheistic: Believing in only one god. Diaspora: a period in history when people of Jewish faith were forced to scatter from their homeland because of invading empires. BC = Before the Child BCE = Before the Common Era AD = Anno Domini (Year of the Lord)
Judaism According to the Torah, the Hebrew religion began around 2000 BC with the prophet Abraham. Hebrews originally lived in Canaan and then Egypt, but around 1000 BC left Egypt and established the kingdom of Israel in Jerusalem. Israel suffered from internal revolts against the high taxes and forced labor in order to build a grand temple for their god under King Solomon. The government became weak and could not avoid outside invasion which ultimately divided the kingdom. In 722 BC, Jerusalem was divided by the Assyrians from Mesopotamia who used new iron weapons.
Around 586 BC the Jews scattered and were forced into exile by the invading armies of Babylon. Nebuchadnezzar (King of Babylon) destroyed the great Temple of Israel and forced Israelites into exile. Eventually, the Persians defeated the Babylonians and allowed the Israelites to return home where they settled in Judea and became known as Jews. They lived under Persian rule, but were allowed to practice the Jewish faith. In 63 B.C. the Romans conquered the Persians and captured Palestine and Jerusalem, including Judea and Jews became part of the Roman province.
Under Roman Rule: Roman leaders wanted Jews to give up their faith and follow Roman customs. Jewish followers were unwilling to abandon their faith and faced persecution leading to Jewish revolts and forced migration. Different Jewish groups arose- including one named Jesus who would create a new religion– Christianity. This is known as “diaspora” and Jews migrated throughout the Middle East and Europe.
Rome was a society of tolerance because of the mixed religions in conquered territories as long as they honored the Emperor. However, Christians were persecuted because they would not make sacrifices to the Roman Emperor. Roman officials considered Christians disloyal traitors. Christians became “scapegoats” (took the blame) for all of society problems when the Empires became unstable. Christians became “martyrs” willing to die for their beliefs.
Principles of Judaism: the covenant The Jews believe that it is their duty to remain faithful and obedient to God in return for His protection and a homeland. Their beliefs are outlined in the Torah, the Jewish holy book. In Hebrew, “Torah” means “instruction” Torah could also include oral stories and teachings from the wise elders. Jews must adhere to the Ten Commandments, the Seven Universal Laws, and uphold a strict code of morality and a system of justice to enforce basic human rights in international law.
Christianity What we know of early Christianity comes from the Gospels (which means “good news”) The prophet of Christianity is Jesus Christ, born around 4-2 B.C. near Jerusalem. At the age of 30 Jesus and his apostles (followers) began to spread his teachings, which were firmly rooted in the Jewish tradition. Belief in one god and God’s love. Adherence to the Ten Commandments. Lead a moral life. Taught the need for justice, morality, and service to others.
Jesus eventually traveled to Rome, where he was arrested and executed (crucifixtion) by Roman officials The Roman Emperor believed that he was a threat because his speeches might encourage those eager to end Roman rule. After his death, Jesus’ followers continued to spread his teachings throughout Rome to Jews and Gentiles (non-Jews). Christian beliefs are outlined in the Bible – the Old Testament is based on the Torah. The New Testament is based on the Gospels and Paul’s Letters (one of the Gospels). Christianity
Roman persecution ended around A.D. 313 when the Roman Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan that granted freedom of worship to all citizens of the Roman Empire. By AD 395 Christianity had become the official religion of the Roman Empire. During the Middle Ages (A.D. 500-1500) the Christian Church emerged as the most powerful force in Europe with a hierarchy power structure within the Church (Pope-Clergy) The Church became wealthy because of tithes and land ownership. Eventually, the Church grew so wealthy, they could challenge the authority of kings and infiltrated the government
By the 1100s, schools developed to train clergy. Over time, these schools evolved into many of our modern universities that would later explode with “new” ideas including ideas inspired by Aristotle. Other early ideas would spread throughout Western Europe in the 1200s that sparked a “learning revolution” that blended early Greek philosophy with Christian teachings.
Islam The Muslim religion began around 600 AD with the prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was a trader and in his journeys came into contact with many Jews and Christians. While the Islamic faith has many similarities to Judaism and Christianity, it differs on many important principles. –For example, Christians believe the prophet Jesus Christ to be on the same level as God, while Muslims believe that prophets (including Muhammad) are merely mortal men with divine insight. Islamic beliefs are outlined in the Qur’an.
Monotheistic Religion Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are three world religions that have influenced various practices and faiths. They all believe in one omniscient god. Whereas the Greeks relied on reason to explain the world around them, members of monotheistic religion relied on faith. The balance between reason and faith will constantly shift after the Enlightenment... Stay tuned.