Childhood Obesity : How can physical education help reduce the incidence? Judith A. Flohr, Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology James Madison University email@example.com
Outline Introduction Responsibility Obesity and Public Health Defining Obesity:When is a Child Considered Obese/Overweight? Prevalence of Obesity Consequences of Obesity Prevention:The Importance of Physical Education Managing Obesity/Overweight Questions and Answers
Physical Education Teachers School Administrators State/Federal Legislators ParentsHealth Care Providers Responsibility Who is “responsible” for the health and well being of children? University Faculty University Faculty University Faculty
East Penn School District April 4, 2002 To the Parents/Guardian of “I am an overweight kid”; Beginning in the fall 2001 school nurses in cooperation with teachers and administrators have been screening students for signs and symptoms of overweight and/or obesity. Unfortunately, the results of the height and body weight measurements indicate that your child is obese. We want to assure you that the purpose of the screenings and this letter are to assist in appraising, protecting and promoting the health status of your child. We look forward to working with you to encourage and develop ways for your child to increase his/her activity and adopt good nutritional habits. Sincerely, George Ziolkowski, Director Pupil Personnel Services
Responsibility Teachers Maximize the child’s physical activity experiences Before/After school programs Recreational activities Maximize physical activity during and after class Emphasis should be on a child’s health Homework Effective use of class time How?
Mission and Goals Program What is the mission of the program? Fitness development? Motor skill development? Physical activity behavior? Teacher Professional goals Personal health goals Contribution to the mission of the program Students Setting goals Environment, activities etc to help reach goals
Statistics Twenty years ago, 5% of American kids were overweight; today 15% are, and another 15% are headed that way In 1969 80% of kids played sports everyday;today 20% do By 17, a child has spent 38% more time in front of the TV than in school.
Body Mass Index 4 th graders in Virginia Percentage of Population Comprehensive Study of the Nutritional Status of Children (1998) 16.4% (13) 14.1% (13)
Body Mass Index 4 th and 7 th graders (Harrisonburg) N=25 N=22 % of population N = 54 4 th graders 1996 13% 30% (14) 31% (14)
Body Mass Index 7 th graders ( Harrisonburg) N=12N=20N=10N=05 OB >95th Percentile OW >85th Percentile
Consequences of Childhood Obesity: Risk for Adulthood Obesity Percent who become obese adults 0-5 yrs6-12 yrs12-17 yrs
Consequences of Childhood Obesity Overweight 5-10 year olds 60% have 1 CVD risk factor 25% have 2 or more Obesity is a major risk factor for Type II Diabetes, CVD and hypertension.
Consequences of Childhood Obesity Overweight schoolchildren are: 2 time as likely to have elevated total cholesterol 12 times as likely to have fasting insulin
Obese adolescents 25% impaired glucose tolerance.4% silent Type II Diabetes Consequences of Childhood Obesity Hyperinsulinemia Syndrome X
Prevention of Obesity: Etiology of Obesity Cultural 30% Genetic 25% Other (environment, lifestyle) 45%
Prevention:Etiology of Obesity High Energy Intake Genetic & Parental Influences Low Energy Expenditure
Prevention:Etiology of Childhood Obesity Low birth weight Induces a “natural” catch-up in growth 0-2 years of age. Catch-up may increase the risk for obesity later in life Pregnancy Overweight mother may = overweight child Breast Feeding Critical periods, Oscai, Larry
Prevention:Etiology of Childhood Obesity Parental Effects Obesity in parents is a strong risk factor (environmental ? Genetic?) Risk high if: If thin child < 3 yrs has a parent or two parents, risk = 30-60% In older children body weight stronger predictor of risk for obesity
The Importance of Physical Education Middle School Pedometer (measures steps) Total on a PE day Girls = 10,484 ± 2896 Boys = 11,554 ± 4619 Steps in PE Girls 2063 ± 867 Boys 2220 ± 1221 21% of daily total was from PE
The Importance of Physical Education Steps 10,484 ± 2896 11,555 ± 4619 2063± 867 2220± 1221
Percent The Importance of Physical Education 21%
The Importance of Physical Education Approximately 2000 steps/mile Walk one mile at 3 mph pace (3.5 METS) Assume a body weight of 54 kgs. (119 lbs.) Approximate caloric cost of PE = 100 kcals PE = 500 kcals/week 18/36 weeks with no PE 9,000 kcal surplus 2.5 lbs/school year
“Overweight children and adolescents may be at a disadvantage physically, as well as socially and economically.” (Troiano, 1995, p.1090)
Prevention is vital! “Attempts to increase physical activity for children and adolescents may provide a promising avenue in this effort.” (Troiano, 1995, p.1090)
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Non-Drug Multidisciplinary Approach Diet Behavior Modification Exercise Limit High fat snacks Sweet beverages Fast foods
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Parents Should not express criticism, if they do could increase risk of eating disorders Encourage healthy diets and exercise
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Parents should Limit TV Video games Computer use
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Body Composition Caloric Expenditure Muscle Development Bone Development
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Cardiovascular Endurance The ability of the heart, lungs and blood vessels to deliver oxygen to the working muscle for extended periods of time. Maintain an elevated (> 120-130 bpm) for at least 30 min most (5-6) days of the week Vigorous activity > 130 bpm at least 3 days/week How?
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Muscular Strength The ability of a muscle to exert maximum force against resistance. Role in Metabolism Role in “Aerobic Ability” Engage major muscle groups in “resistance” activities Rope Surgical tubing Dyna/Therabands Milk jugs Bungee cords without hook
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Muscular Strength Avoid maximal weights 8-10 RM Damage to “growth plate”-plastic swords Ligament damage- gum Avoid severe muscular fatigue Increase reps before resistance 1-2 sets of 8-10 different exercises Rest between sets 1-2 minutes Limit strength training to 1-2 sessions per week. Push-ups Pull-ups
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Muscular Endurance The ability of a muscle to exert sub maximal force repeatedly over a period of time (> 30 repetitions) How-Activities similar to muscular strength, lower resistance Multi-joint vs. single joint
Managing Overweight & Obese Children Physical Education Flexibility Ability of a joint to move freely through a full range of motion. When Chewing Gum
ACTION The Nation must take action to assist Americans in balancing healthful eating with regular physical activity. Individuals and groups across all settings must work in concert to: Ensure daily, quality physical education in all school grades. Such education can develop the knowledge, attitudes, skills, behaviors, and confidence needed to be physically active for life. The Surgeon General's Call To Action To Prevent and Decrease Overweight and Obesity (2001)
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