Presentation on theme: "Unit VII: Cognition Part three-LANGUAGE Language our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning "— Presentation transcript:
Unit VII: Cognition Part three-LANGUAGE Language our spoken, written, or gestured works and the way we combine them to communicate meaning http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pag el_how_language_transformed_hum anity.html http://www.ted.com/talks/mark_pag el_how_language_transformed_hum anity.html
Language Genes design the mechanisms for a language, and experience activates them as it modifies the brain (So is language acquisition nature or nurture?)
Language Phoneme (M, T, Ch, P) in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit Morpheme (I, Re-, Love, So) in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
Morphemes: How many are there? peoplereddishGeorge’smisspell redevelopmentradishdesirabilitywater swimminglanguageeducationhigher orangegrandmotherunhappyfinger liberallywaitedremainhouseboat erasableantidisestablishmentarianism
Language Grammar: (language rules) a system of rules in a language that enables us to communicate with and understand others Syntax: (sentence structure) the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Language Semantics: study of meaning the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language *When might you use this word in conversation and why?
Language We are all born to recognize speech sounds from all the world’s languages 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Percentage able to discriminate Hindi t’s Hindi- speaking adults 6-8 months 8-10 months 10-12 months English- speaking adults Infants from English-speaking homes What does this chart communicate about language and nature vs. nurture?
Language 1. Babbling Stage beginning at 3 to 4 months the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/video/viral-video-twin-babies-secret-language-13247451 http://abcnews.go.com/WNT/video/viral-video-twin-babies-secret-language-13247451 2. One-Word Stage from about age 1 to 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly in single words
Language 3. Two-Word Stage beginning about age 2 the stage in speech development during which a child speaks in mostly two-word statements 4. Telegraphic Speech early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram-–“go car”--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting “auxiliary” words Create a mnemonic for remembering the (4) stages
Language Summary of Language Development Month (approximate) Stage 4 10 12 24 24+ Babbles many speech sounds. Babbling reveals households language. One-word stage. Two-world, telegraphic speech. Language develops rapidly into complete sentences. http://www.ted.com/talks/deb_roy_the_birth_of_a_word.html
Language New language learning gets harder with age 100 90 80 70 60 50 Native3-78-1011-1517-39 Percentage correct on grammar test Age at school
Thinking & Language The interplay of thought and language: If we think in words, does a limited vocabulary inhibit our ability to think? Why/how?
Language Linguistic Relativity/Sapir-Whorf hypothesis : language affects the way we conceptualize the world Linguistic Determinism : Language determines the way we think http://youtu.be/ArTPdEWA1_4http://youtu.be/ArTPdEWA1_4 (fast-talking student) http://youtu.be/hHQ2756cyD8 http://youtu.be/hHQ2756cyD8 (Stephen Fry & Hugh Laurie on Language) Do you agree or disagree? Give a supporting example…All 3s share your thoughts and other table members be ready to share
Linguistic Relativity/ Linguistic Determinism “The limits of your language mean the limits of your world.” Ludwig Wittgenstein
Vocabulary The Inuit (aka Eskimos) 20+ words for snow Fiji Islanders No words for snow Many words for coconuts Arabic (not using adjectives, but different words) 700 words to describe camels—height, weight, age, color, smell, etc.
More Vocabulary Hawaiians 25-30 different words for tides and waves Surfers-glassy, macking, etc. Wauroni (S. American tribal people) No word for “work” New Guinea tribal groups No words for “war” Hopi Indians A single noun to refer to all flying things and beings (except for birds) Insects=planes=aviators=superman
More Vocabulary Americans and their love of cars Types of non-commercial vehicles/transportation e.g. sedan, convertible, 4WD, hatchback, notchback, truck, pickup truck, SUV, mini-SUV, mini-van, Hummer, single and double-cab pickup, etc.
The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis According to Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, all higher levels of thinking are dependent on language. Language determines thought, which is: linguistic determinism
And...because languages differ in many ways, speakers of different languages perceive and experience the world differently, relative to their linguistic back ground, hence the notion of linguistic relativism.
Linguistic Relativity: It is impossible to learn the language of a different culture unless the learner abandons own mode of thinking and acquires the thought patterns of the native speakers of target language
Arguments against the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis The speakers of a language with no lexicalized word for“snow” does not mean that they can not grasp the concept of “snow Grammar does not determine understanding Morphemes (“s” or no “s”) Translation Second language acquisition
Animal Thinking and Language The straight-line part of the dance points in the direction of a nectar source, relative to the sun Direction of nectar source
Animal Thinking and Language Gestured Communication
Animal Thinking and Language Is this really language?