2 What is Government?What comes to mind when you think of a “government”?A government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces public policies.Public policies are all of the things a government decides to do.Politics is the process, while government is the institution.
3 PowerIn order for a government to function it must have power. Every government exercises three basic types of power:1. Legislative Power- the power to make laws and frame policy2. Executive Power- the power to execute, enforce, & administer laws3. Judicial Power- The power to interpret laws and settle disputes
4 Definition:A body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government.Added Info:Does not always have to be written down.Examples:The American Constitution:Ratified in 1789 and is the oldest surviving constitution in the world.Image:Constitution
5 Classifying Governments* Who can participateThe geographic distribution of power within the stateRelationship between the legislative & executive branchesDictatorshipDemocracyUnitaryFederalConfederationPresidentParliamentary*these classifications are not mutually exclusive.
6 Definition:Supreme authority rests with the peopleAdded Info:Can be either:Direct- people vote directly on all policyIndirect-people elect representatives to vote in their best interestExamples:Recall electionsVotingDemonstrationsConsent of the peopleImage:Democracy
7 Definition:Those who rule are not held responsible to the will of the peopleAdded Info:Governmental power can be held by one person or a small group of leaders.This is the most common form of government throughout history.Examples:Adolf Hitler and Nazi GermanyJosef Stalin and Communist RussiaMoamar Qadaffi in LibyaAssad in SyriaImage:Dictatorship
8 Definition:All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency.Added Info:Most governments in the world are unitary in form.This does not mean that they are a dictatorship.Examples:Great BritainFranceSwedenImage:Unitary
9 Definition:Governmental power is divided between a central government and several local governments.Added Info:Both levels of government act directly on the people through laws , officials, and agencies.Examples:The United States:The National government (D.C.) has certain powers that the state gov’ts (WI) do not have, vice versa.Image:Federal
10 An alliance of independent states Added Info: Definition:An alliance of independent statesAdded Info:The national gov’t only has the power that member states have given it.Examples:The Articles of ConfederationThe Confederate States of AmericaThe European UnionImage:Confederation
11 Geographic Distribution of Power UnitaryFederalismConfederationState Gov’tCentral Gov’tCentral Gov’tCentral Gov’tState Gov’tState Gov’t
12 Definition:Separation of powers between the legislative and executive branches.Added Info:The two branches are independent of one another and coequal.Checks and balances must exist between the two. Why?Examples:The United StatesMexicoMost of South AmericaImage:President
13 The prime minister and cabinet are members of the legislative branch. Definition:The prime minister and cabinet are members of the legislative branch.Added Info:The executive is chosen by the legislative and is thus a part of it.The PM stays in office as long as they maintain the support of the majority in Parliament.Examples:Most of the world is parliamentaryGreat BritainCanadaImage:Parliamentary