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Principles of Language Assessment Ratnawati Graduate Program University State of Semarang.

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Presentation on theme: "Principles of Language Assessment Ratnawati Graduate Program University State of Semarang."— Presentation transcript:

1 Principles of Language Assessment Ratnawati Graduate Program University State of Semarang

2 Consequential Validity It encompasses all the consequences of a test. Accuracy in measuring intended criteria, Its impact on the preparation of test takers, Its effect on the learner, Social consequences of a test’s interpretation and use.

3 Aspect of Consequential validity a.The effect of test preparation courses b.Manuals on performance c.Washback: (Gronlund, 1998) encourages teachers to consider the effect of assessment on students’ motivation, subsequent performance in a course, independent learning, study habits, and attitude toward school work

4 Face Validity Gronlund, 1998: when students view the assessment as fair, relevant, and useful for improving learning. Mousavi, 2002: refers to the degree to which a test looks right, and appears to measure the knowledge or abilities.

5 Indicators of Face Validity 1.A well constructed, expected format with familiar tasks 2.Clearly doable within the allotted time limit 3.Clear and uncomplicated 4.Directions that crystal clear 5.Tasks that relate to their course work (content validity) 6.Presents a reasonable challenge for difficult level

6 Authenticity The degree of correspondence of the characteristics of a given language test task to the features of target language task. (Palmer and Bachman, 1996) Ways of presenting authenticity: a. Language is natural b. Items are contextualized c. Topics are meaningful d. Some thematic organization or items is provided e. Tasks represent, closely approximate, real world tasks

7 Washback The effect of testing on teaching and testing (Hughes, 2003) Negative Effects: –Restriction of content – narrowing of curriculum –Too much time practising for the test Positive Effects: –Transparent objectives and outcomes –Increased motivation of learners –Increased accountability of teachers

8 In large scale assessment, washback generally refers to the effects the test have on instruction in items of how students prepare for the test. Example : “cram” courses and teaching to the test. Washback enhances a number of basic principles of language acquistion such as;intrinsic motivation, autonomy, self- confidence, language ego, interlanguage, and strategic investment.

9 Applying Principles to the Evaluation of Classroom Tests 1.Are the test procedures practical? the teacher’s and students’ time constraints, costs, administrative details, to some extent by what occurs before and after the test.

10 Practicality Checklist a.Are administrative details clearly established before the test? b.Can students complete the test reasonably within the set time frame? c. Can the test to be administered smoothly, without procedural glitches? d. Are the materials and equipment ready?

11 e. Is the cost of the test within budgeted limits? f. Is the scoring/evaluation system feasible in the teacher’s time frame? g. Are methods of reporting results determined in advance?

12 2. Is the test reliable? Test and test administration reliability can be achieved by making sure that all students receive the same quality input, whether written or auditory.

13 Physical Context of Reliability a.Every student has a cleanly photocopied test sheet b.Sound amplification is clearly audible. c.Video input is equally visible. d. Lighting, temperature, extraneous noise, and other classroom conditions are equals e. Objective scoring procedure leave little debate.

14 The Reliability Guidelines in the Open- Ended Responses 1.Use consistent sets of criteria for a correct response 2.Give uniform attention to those sets throughout the evaluation time 3.Read test at least twice to check your consistency 4.Mid stream modification for correct response can be applied to all students 5.Avoid fatigue by reading the tests in several sitting.

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