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1 Site Analysis A n O u t l i n e f o r A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e - d e s i g n Covering Resource Analysis Circulation Land Use Utilities Regulation.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Site Analysis A n O u t l i n e f o r A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e - d e s i g n Covering Resource Analysis Circulation Land Use Utilities Regulation."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Site Analysis A n O u t l i n e f o r A r c h i t e c t u r a l P r e - d e s i g n Covering Resource Analysis Circulation Land Use Utilities Regulation Landscape Design Land Form Sample Project

2 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 2 Table of Contents Resource Analysis: Context3 Natural & Cultural Elements4 Climate5 Hydrology7 Soils9 Flora12 Land Use: Historic Elements14 Design Elements15 Regulation: Zoning Codes & Ordinances16 Accessible/Barrier-Free Design19 Land Form: Topography20 Grading22 Circulation: Pedestrian24 Vehicular25 Utilities: Services & Distribution26 Drainage & Waste Systems28 Landscaping: Design Concepts30 Materials32 Sample Design Project: Program34 Available Sites35 Design Solution Format38

3 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 3 Context Natural: –Land Form –Geography –Climate –Flora/Vegetation –Fauna/Animals Cultural: –Ethnicity –Religion –Social Structure –Political Structure –Economic Structure Resource Analysis

4 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 4 Elements Natural Landform: –topography –composition (soils, stones, water bodies) –features (streams, rivers, coast, seas, mount’n) Geography: –elevation –region (n/s/e/w, hemisphere, lat/longitude) –characteristics (island/land mass) Climate (affected by): –sun –earth’s rotation –earth’s surface characteristics –location on earth –time of year Flora (vegetation): –Aquatic; estuarine palustrine marine lacustrine riverine –Terrestrial; forest desert savanna tundra grassland Fauna (animal): –Habitat; 1. Food2. Water 3. Cover4. territory Cultural Ethnicity: –lineage –traditions –heritage –customs Religion: –value systems –beliefs –burial rites –rituals Social Structure: –language –community –values Political Structure: –democratic –socialist –monarchy –dictatorship Economic Structure: –tradition mutual or democratic –command veiled power or physical coercion –market supply/demand and a striving for universal upward Resource Analysis

5 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 5 Climate Atmosphere: –climatology –meteorology Weather - a brief event Climate - an ongoing accumulation of weather at a place over a number of years Dr. Koppen’s scales of reference: –macro (global, affected by sun and earth)) –mese (intermediate variations influenced by land mass, bodies of water, etc.) –micro climate of a particular region of distinct characteristics) Climate conditions: –1. Sun4. Humidity –2. Temperature5. Wind –3. Precipitation Sun: affects the water cycle and along with winds, forms clouds and rain - a key factor of life cycle through photosynthesis. The sun produces electromagnetic energy, reaching the earth as direct radiation which gets reflected and refracted. –Albido is the % of solar radiation reflected by the earth; –Sun position described by: altitude (angle of measure off the horizon {horizontal}) azimuth (lateral angle of measure in relation to compass) isogonic maps (corrected 14.5° east of north for magnetism) glare: primary (direct solar glare) and secondary (reflected off biotic {natural/alive} or abiotic {man-made/not alive}). Temperature: –measured by wet bulb and dry bulb Degree days: –given - a base temp. of 65°: take the difference between the base temp. and the average temp for the month and multiply by the number of days in the month. –This is used in calculating fuel requirements as the number of BTU’s gained by a unit of fuel is relative to the number of BTU’s required to offset the degree-days above or below the base temp. Factors that affect Temperature: –landform and affects on temp.: air movement temp decreases 3.5°/1000 ft. of elevation rise water bodies and valleys posses natural ventilation as humid air can become warmer and cool air sinks aspect or orientation of slopes leeward side of water bodies can be cloudy - clouds insulate against both insolation and evening radiational cooling (macro=north American jet stream, mese=great lake region, micro=Buffalo, NY) flora, through “transpiration” affects temp through various ground-cover characteristics albido (reflectance), i.e. snow cover (95%) water (3-10%), meadows and fields (1-5%) Resource Analysis

6 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 6 Climate Cont’d... Precipitation (falling condensation): –types of: rain snow (1” rain = 10” snow) hail freezing rail –Factors that affect precipitation: temperature at the cloud strata temperature at the ground strata relative humidity landform: it directs air masses, windward slopes are cool and humid, leeward slopes are warm and dry Humidity (the amount of water vapor in the air) –relative humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air relative to the temperature and the amount required for saturation (100% saturation is called the “dew point” –humid air effected by plants (evaporation) –human body comfort both physical and mental and effected by temperature, air movement, radiation and humidity - the body tries to maintain 98.6° through radiation & evaporation. –human comfort zone can be accomplished through ideal combinations of temp. and humidity as described on the psychometric chart. Wind (natural movement of air by earth energy) –6 semetrical wind belts globally –jetstreams - upper-level air currents moving from the equator to the poles, usually around 200 mph –local winds - controlled by micro-climate affects previous Properties: –direction (indicated by the direction which it comes from) –speed(indicated in mph or knots; 1 knot=1.15 mph) Disadvantages: –destruction of life and property –discomfort (wind chill) –erosion Advantages: –increased thermal comfort –recreational activities –natural wind-borne life cycle (disbursing seeds) Architectural affects: –venturi effect: negative pressure on leeward side of wind obstruction –5-20xh=non-wind effected area –upward lift on building materials Resource Analysis

7 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 7 Hydrology Earth Realms: atmosphere lithosphere inorganic alone, together they’re biosphere hydroshpere Hydroshpere (the entire water realm of the earth’s surface, earth’s surface ground water and water held in the atmosphere: 97% oceans and seas 2% atmosphere.97% soils.03% streams, rivers, lakes Hydrology (the science of the behavior of water) Hydraulic cycle (the waters of the atmosphere, land and ocean moving in a great series of interchanges two shifts 1. Location 2. State (phases) evaporation: water moisture (rain, snow, water bodies) evaporates and goes back into air transpiration: surface plants move moisture through their roots to their leaves and thus transpire moisture into air Paths back to the ocean subsurface –gravity driven infiltration porosity (volume of air), permeability (ease to move thru) –soil-water belt (where plants get their moisture) –ground water belt (aquifers - limit of use ½ mile but depths up to 10 miles) –aquifer (fully saturated pocket of water) –water perch (a source of water located above the water table) Paths back to the ocean cont’d…. Surface –two kind of flow 1. runoff (over land) 2. flow (stream) Drainage (occurs through networks of overland flow & channels): coefficient of runoff=the fraction of precipitation which is not lost to infiltration, the whole #1=100% (note handout) flow: always perpendicular to the contours, the closer the contours, the faster the flow (never going uphill) vehicles: creeks, streams, rivers respectively –1st order=no contributaries –2nd order=two contributaries –3rd order=2nd contributaries drainage system: a specific boundaried area containing 1st, 2nd and 3rd order contributaries, usually bounded by a topographic divide and powered by the movement of gravity Hydrologic Factors: functional (for drinking, bathing, waste removal, washing) aesthetic (moral, senses, ordering element) usage (one person uses 100 gal./day ave.) eutrophic process (the natural and unnatural aging of a water body where sediments collect on the bottom and algae blooms at the top, thus using up O 2 and killing living organisms) erosion (the stripping, carrying and placement of sediments) –type & texture of soil –type of ground cover –slope geometry –runoff volume Resource Analysis

8 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 8 Hydrology Cont’d... Flooding (positive occurrence of nature): riverine: all water moving over land draining slopes into the ordered networks or systems - flooding occurs when channel capacity is exceeded. –BFE = base flood elevation –dealt with through: dams, levies, water storage, banks, wetlands coastal: all ocean and sea fringes impacted by tidal wave movement –B Zone: special permission required for development –A Zone: same as above and subject to flooding –V Zone: same as above and subject to high winds and waves Ecosystem (a system formed by the interaction of a community of organisms within their environments) Aquatic Ecosystem: –estuarineforest –marinesavanna –riverinegrassland –palustrinedesert –lacustrinetundra Water: has vital effect on human and animal emotion. Emotional: recreational aspects include fishing, skiing, swimming, boating, etc. –water transpires negative ions and this is felt emotionally Aesthetic: every culture has its own values of beauty yet water can be perceived through he senses Symbolic: water symbolizes life, birth, rebirth and is related to rites and passages Religious: closely related to symbolic as it represents purification, washing away of sins, protecting. Dilution is the solution to pollution! Resource Analysis

9 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 9 Soils Soil: the transition between air, water, and life on the surface of the earth and the bedrock of the subsurface. The breaking-up of bedrock is the creating of soil, occurring rapidly or over hundreds of years. To:engineers, it supports structures; farmers, it’s a plant growing medium; geologists, it’s an instruments to understand the underlying bedrock. Changes: apparent material; climate living organisms relief time –sediment –regolith –bedrock Sediment: organic material with sediments; Regolith: solid rock mineral of same material as bedrock Bedrock: the parent material Comprehensive Soil Classification System: SCS-Soil Conservation Service; an international effort to classify all types of soils (in the 1950’s) into six classification categories: 1) Orders, 2) suborders, 3)great groups, 4) subgroups, 5) familiar groups, 6) series. Series: have similar profiles; morphology: a general term for the form or structure of something. Series>phases. Soil Composition (soils of organic/inorganic) water air organics –plants –animals mineral particles –gravel 2mm Ø + –sand 2mm to.05mm Ø –silt.05mm to.002mm Ø –clay.002mm Ø < Resource Analysis

10 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 10 Soils Cont’d... Gravel & Sand - increase ariation and little moisture containment; Silt & Clay - good moisture containment capacity and contains nutrients. Soil Morphology Cross-Section: described in terms of layers (horizons) assumed parallel to the earth’s surface. Major horizons have been given specific code designations (see board illustration) O = organic material form this layer “O horizon” and range from unadulterated upper level layer (duff-that which falls upon the forest floor) down to the humus layer (formed by decomposition of duff). A = the uppermost layer of the mineral profile and holds the most organic matter of the horizon. Ap = topsoil layer borders between A & B horizons. B = subsoil, very fine particle and mineral accumulation C = substratum, layer of unconsolidated material and formed from the breakup of bedrock and uninhibited by organic materials (regolith). R = underlying consolidated bedrock (bedrock). Texture classifications based upon particle size, effects include bearing capacity, drainage, and erosion. Unified Soil Classification System (based on texture and performance) is broken down into three basic groups; –coarse grain soils –fine grain soils –highly organic soils (see USDA texture triangle handout) clay silt – sand Bearing Capacity: –rock –coarse grain soils (sand and gravel) –fine grain soils (clay and silt) Resource Analysis

11 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 11 Soils Cont’d... Engineering Drawing Symbols: Boring Symbol Test Hole Data Three types of organic soils: humus loam peat (muck) Engineering Factors: shrinkage & swelling, bendenite is clay sandwiched by cardboard and when moisture gets in it expands the clay thus sealing a foundation joint frost penetration expands clay subsidence (the sinking of land) –caused by loose fill, organic soils –voids created by subsurface sedimentation –sliding of materials bearing capacity determinants Slope stabilizing Techniques: plantings rip-rap mulch retaining walls erosion is the process by which the surface is warn away by action of the natural elements. Two major soils in S.E. New England: glacial till outwash Resource Analysis

12 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 12 Flora Flora: plants of a particular region. Biosphere Aquatic: –estuarine –marine –riverine –palustrine –lacustrine Terrestrial: –forest –savanna –grasslands –desert –tundra Biome: a complex or assemblage of plant and animals characterized by a distinct type of vegetation. Biotic Community: a local association of plant and animals which are inter-dependent and often found together. Habitat: a type of physical environment which has a characteristic biotic community. Connecticut: a forest biome - mid latitude, predominantly disciduous, concentrations of conifer. Vegetation (flora): floristic: (Latin {botanical} names of plants. Structural elements: –upper story (trees) –under story shrubs/herbs/grasses) –size stratification –coverage (barren or continuous coverage) Resource Analysis

13 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 13 Flora Cont’d... Physical Relationships: environmental regulation (provide oxygen) climate control productivity visual quality emotional satisfaction Symbiotic Relationship: trees clean the air (4 tons of dust/year) “ provide oxygen “ water containment enhance micro climate through transpiration bear fruit (provide sustenance) provide paper & other goods the eye is most sensitive to greens/yellows –500 microns spatial modulation & defining borders Architectural Uses: directionenclosure screen/barrierconnect focal pointframe a vista Arrangements: natural (Frank Lloyd Wright) classical (Versailles) topiary (specific sculptural shapes) Habitats: open land, wood land, wet land –wild areas (hundreds of sq. mi.’s) –wild patches (20-40 sq. mi.’s) –wild enclaves (marsh, swamp {palustrine}) –wild corridors (rivers, power line corr.) –exotic means artificial man-made landscapes) –wild life parks specifically built f/wildlife) Resource Analysis

14 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 14 Historic Elements Land Use Study inventory uses, identify constraints & opportunity; master plan, a flexible guideline for land use; gather data: remote sensing, formal field study, plat maps and insurance maps (Sanborn/FIRM) Land Use Inventory cover: vegetation, soils, water bodies/channels; circulation access: interstates, arteries, tributaries; utilities: water, waste, gas, elect, communications; ownership: private, municipal, corporate; nuicances: visual, auditory, safety, odors; linkages: of people, goods and waste. Humanity Elements social: pertaining to life & welfare of humans; economy: pertaining to production & distribution of goods and services, income & wealth Behavioral Analysis indirect observation direct observation direct communication participatory analysis Patterns of Development goods –farming –mercantile commerce –textile manufacturing –assembly plants services –technology –professional services –educational institutions –entertainment Land Use

15 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 15 Design Elements Visual Elements size/shape of spaces degree of visual enclosure features/views/vistas sense of place Spatial Factors planes: base, overhead, vertical; –base: ground, floor –overhead: sky, ceiling, forest canopy –vertical: vegetation, topo, walls enclosure: sense of enclosure defined by natural and cultural elements; definition: light, color, texture, form Natural geography –location to water bodies, transportation routes, natural resources; topography –mountains, planes, rolling hills climatology –temperate humid –hot arid –tropical Cultural forms materials densities Land Use

16 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 16 Zoning, Codes & Ordinances Regulation: land use controls and management techniques with legal constraints to maintain public health, safety and welfare. Zoning Regulation: commenced in NY city in 1916 as a form of control by power of local, state and government regulation for the health, safety and welfare of society. Controls include: –% of lot coverage; –FAR (floor area ratio), a function of the entire living space in a structure to the size of the lot; –building height; –bulk restrictions for lot density - front, side and rear setback. Site Planning Aspects use: each zone within a municipality has a coded use recommended for development; configuration: refers to front, side(s) and rear setbacks and regulates % lot coverage, lot dimensions, height limitations. intensity: FAR (see description left); access & parking: moving of people, goods, services and waste. Definitions setbacks: physical dimension, creates a prescribed horizontal envelope which structures can be built within; FAR: a ratio of total building floor area to total lot size; height: physical dimension, creates a prescribed vertical envelope; density: unit land/dwellings, dwellings/unit parking: #spaces/dwelling or /sqft. Bldg. Regulation

17 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 17 Zoning, Codes & Ordinances Cont’d... Regulation Flexibility variances: formal relief granted by a zoning board to vary from the regulations; zone change: formal change in “zone” designation for a prescribed area of a particular town re-zone w/conditions: “spot zone” allowed when the town receives an amenity in exchange for zoning relief; cluster development: standard massing and density for a particular site; planned unit development: varying massing and density but the aggregate site must conform to zoning regulations; historic districts: preserve the historic & cultural heritage through dev. Control; aesthetic controls: “deed restrictions” which control architectural intent Modern Zoning most zones are modeled after zoning already in place in other areas, countries, etc.; many zones designed to create a particular characteristic in an area; good zoning is always flexible to holistic change in a town’s fabric, impacted by: –the power base –social factors –economic factors –political factors town fabric is part planning - part luck. Regulation

18 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 18 Zoning, Codes & Ordinances Cont’d... Zoning Analysis Identify constraints: –identify proper zone within town’s districts; –inventory zone’s parameters; –identify assessory regulations to zone. Identify zone: –towns are broken up into zoned districts which derive from and support development of the town’s master plan; –sometimes parcels exist within two or more zones - the more restrictive of the zones would apply. Inventory zone parameters: –General Regulations, usually a mission-style statement which outlines the town’s intent for the overall development of that zone; –the General Regulations also outline major uses recommended and prohibited in a zone. Inventory zone parameters: –Uses, this section of the regulations defines uses which are allowed in particular zones: permitted uses; assessory uses; uses by special use permitting. –Bulk Requirements, defines the 3-dimensional construction envelope of a site including: set-backs, front/side/rear; lot coverage (build’g imprint as a % of lot area) FAR (floor area ratio - total sum of living area as % of total lot area) maximum height/flood planes/etc. Assessory Regulations: –parking requirements; –landscaping requirements; –buffer requirements; –site-lines, safety issues Regulation

19 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 19 Accessible/Barrier-Free Design ADA: enacted to provide for equal treatment of disabled people. As it relates to architecture, it provides for equal access and barrier-free environments for the disabled (ANSI 117.1). Three basic areas of regulation include: ingress barrier free environments egress Ingress: pertains to site accessibility, mobility and building ingress: parking planning to normal standards; parking spaces min. 8’ wide w/5’ aisle; curb-cuts w/detectable surfaces required; level changes ¼”; side walks handrails are required; ramps cannot exceed 1:12 & 30’ long before 5’ x 5’ turning area; 24” clearance req’d on pull-side of door. Barrier Free Environment: power actuated egress doors required; 7’ deep double door vestibules; 36” min. corridors; w/48 return or 42”/48’ wide w/smaller return; 32” min. doors, 24” on pull-side; thresholds same as prev. level change defin. tactile privacy door hardware; interior ramp same as ext. (see rail handouts); see handouts for: –bathroom design regulations; –other public area regulations. Egress: areas of refuge required on upper floors; power actuated egress doors; audible alarms w/strobes. Regulation

20 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 20 Landform Geomorphology: The study of the origins & characteristics of land form (contour). Earth’s cross section: atmosphere; hydrosphere; lithosphere +/- 25 miles thick. Lithosphere: Continental crust Oceanic crust –They’re dynamic masses broken down into 12 “plates floating on the mantel. Collision: plates coming together; Subduction; ocean plate sliding under the continent plate; Opposing: plates going in opposite direction; Accretion: mantel comes up through two opposing plates; Transform boundary: two plates slide by each other (San Andreas fault). Tectonic activity: bending, breaking and sliding at the boundary of plates; Volcanic activity: the upheaval of magma between opposing plates; Mercalli intensity scale: (not Richter) measures damage on a scale of 1 thru 12, Richter measures earth movement magnitude at a logarithmic rate; Sequential landform: denudation – the forces influential in shaping landform, i.e.. Weather, erosion, mass-wasting, etc. or the transformation of matter brought upon by an agent (water, glacial ice, wind, gravity. Landform

21 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 21 Landform Rocks: any aggregate of minerals in a solid state (lithosphere) ages from now to billions of years old. Rock Categories: Sedimentary (shale, limestone); –Formed by sedimentation (transporting by stream) and makes up 75% of lithosphere. Igneous (lava, granite); –Formed by the solidification of magma and makes up 18% of lithosphere. Metamorphic (slate, marble). –Formed by a combination of the other two and makes up 7% of lithosphere. Denudation: shaping of the earth’s surface by weather, erosion, mass-wasting, etc. Weathering: Mechanical (disintegration) i.e.. Frost heaves; Chemical (decomposition) i.e.. Changing rock compounds (mechanical simply rearranges). Erosion: materials are transported from one place to another by stream, ice, water, wind, etc. Mass-wasting: materials settling through gravity and angle of repose (depends on mass and coarseness of material) i.e.. slump, mudflows. Landform

22 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 22 Landform Landform agents: Wind-laid: Aeolian, i.e.. loess; Water-laid: fluvial (water transports sediments); –Riverine: flood plain, delta; –Alluvial: sand-bar; –Fresh water formation: lake beds; –Marine formation: tidal flats, coastal plains. Glacial: 30% of all land surface has been glacial at one point; –Alpine: mountain ranges, tarns (small hills); –Continental glaciation: (all of Greenland) 20,000 years ago the last North American glacier receded through 1/3 of the U.S. and was 300-400’ thick over Rhode Island. Terrain: a product of landform. Landscape: assemblences of terrain. Landform

23 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 23 Landform Topography: two dimensional drawing illustrating surface configuration and relief features pertaining to a specific area of land. Contour interval: the vertical dimension between the contour elevation (usually uniform); –Developed in Holland in 1730 but utilized for practical use in the 19 th century. –Existing contour is a dashed line; –Proposed contour is a solid line; –Contour elevation always placed on the uphill; –Every 5’ or 10’ interval is a heavier line Hypsometric: above sea-level; Bathymetric: below sea-level. Slope: the inclination of terrain defined either by ratio, percentage or degree inclination. Ratio: the ratio between the horizontal and vertical datum, i.e.. 40:20 or 2:1. Percentage: attained by dividing the vertical datum by the horizontal datum and getting a decimal percentage (multiply by 100). V G H G=V/H x 100 Degree: is the angle the hypotenuse makes with the horizontal. Landform

24 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 24 Access Access: A path or route used for travel, recreation, and movement of goods, and services. Paths include; –Trails;- Walks; –Streets;- Rails; –Water;- Air. Forms for access include; –Pedestrian;- Auto; –Boats;- Monorails; –Plane/Balloon;- Escillator, etc. Human movement must conform to design standards for helath, safety and welfare. Concerns include visual, spatial, sequence, line and path. Access Some Stats.: Ave walking speed = 2.5 mph Individual space = 4’ dia. Zone Human movement: site and timing Walks: 3’ wide, two-way traffic 4’; 1-5% grade, ramps 5-8%, steps 20-50%; Ramps 5’ wide, rests @ 30’ intervals; 2 risers + 1 tread = 25

25 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 25 Access Planning: well planned systems enhance the processional experience and takes advantage of natural topography, vistas, and site lines. Examples include; –Ronchamp;- Egyptian architecture; –Versailles;- Roman Forum; –Spanish Steps;- Acropolis, etc. Safe automobile planning includes: –Visual access;- Smooth fluent paths; –Focal points;- Conflict avoidance; –Utilizing rhythm; –Orientation; –Aesthetic enhancement. Access Additional concerns include: Codes/regulations Costs Signage Technique Ergonomics Historical reference Engineering, including: System heirarchy Vertical/horizontal movement Drainage Utilities Performance.

26 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 26 Utilities Utilities: provided as a public service, costs are direct (cable) and indirect (taxes). Examples include: –Systems which dispose of human waste; –Systems which supply: Water Electric power Fuel Communications –Systems which dispose of storm water; –Services, i.e. snow & trash removal, recycles Design values include: –Influence of patterns –Influence land use – development potential –Channel characteristics –3 dimensional space –Common rights-of-way utilities Water systems: Domestic & industial needs High pressure fire protection Closed municipal systems Open (well) systems Sanitary systems: Gravity and pump sewers (2000 yrs. old) Requires solids and effluent Closed system in street flows to municipal treatment station Septic systems Settling tank > flows to distribution box > flows to leaching chambers or trenches Locate 100’ min. down-grade from well suplies Grade <15% over septic systems Grey water to separate dry-well

27 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 27 Utilities Storm drainage systems. Closed – subsrface piped systems: –Expensive hradwares (pipes, basin structures) –Removes standing water –Requires discharge point –Time consuming to install Open (overland flow systems): –Swales (utilizing topo) –Inexpensive, use detention basins –Returns water to ground sooner –Easier to install, more capacity Fuel systems: –Fossil - non renerable –Biomass – timber, crops, methane, solid waste –Electricity – includes all above Overhead vs. underground –Urban or campus steam plant systems (2 mile service) utilities Communication systems: Wired: telephone, security, fire protection, traffic controls, catv Wireless: telephone, security, fire protection, tv Channel distribution: Fiber-optics Low-voltage wires Satelite Coaxial cables Power systems: Generation plants> Sub-stations> Distribution channels> Phase requirements Service entrance Internal distribution systems

28 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 28 Landscaping Site Plan: Property description (graphic) Structures Topo Setbacks Easements Utilities Circulation Landscaping Parking Lighting Drainage Landscape Quality Elements:  Color  Texture  Enclosure  Form  Organization  Space  Time  Plane Landscaping Landscape Site structure Orientation Views Vistas Design exterior “rooms” Usable spaces Vista Organize circulation Define edges Path organization Design landscape areas including: Surfaces: Lawns Patios Teraces Gardens Natural Formal Edges Fences Walls Streets Structures Natural features

29 Site Analysis: Architectural Pre-design© 2007 · Mark A. Comeau, AIA · All Rights Reserved 29 Landscaping Planting Inventory: Layout a story board which illustrates a plant inventory to be used when design landscapes. The board shall be minimum 18” x 24” (portrait) or 24” x 36” (portrait). Section the board by plant catagories, showing pictures, illustrations, and descriptions. Pictures:  Use pictures from magazines, i.e. Better Homes & Gardens, Martha (Stewart), etc.;  Or use illustrations from a book or by you; Description:  Write a brief description of each plant, including:  Common and botanical name  Type of plant  Landscape use  Hardy conditions (preferred exposure, soil conditions, moisture, etc.) Landscaping Plants to inventory: Trees: Ornamental trees Shade trees Flowering trees Evergreen trees Fruit trees  Shrubs:  Ornamental shrubs  Foundation fronting shrubs  Hedge and avenue shrubs  Flowers:  Vine flowers  Perennials  Annuals  Bush flowers  Natural (wild) flowers  Ground and wall covers:  Creeping ground covers  Climbing vines


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