2 Presented by : Lendy Nusa Bika Ika (14700146) Dwi Oktavina (14700170) Reni Sintya Pusvitasari ( )M.Denniansyah ( )Firman Adi ( )Yunita Karina ( )I Gede Yayoung Primery ( )
3 DefinitionAppendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix, which is the small, finger-shaped pouch attached to the beginning of the large intestine on the lower-right side of the abdomen.Appendicitis is a medical emergency, and if left untreated, the appendix may rupture and cause a potentially fatal infection.
4 The classic symptoms of appendicitis : Dull pain near the navel or the upper abdomen that becomes sharp as it moves to the lower right abdomen. This is usually the first sign.Loss of appetiteNausea and vomiting soon after abdominal pain beginsAbdominal swellingFever of °FInability to pass gasAlmost half the time, other symptoms of appendicitis appear, including:Dull or sharp pain anywhere in the upper or lower abdomen, back, or rectumPainful urinationVomiting that precedes the abdominal painSevere crampsConstipation or diarrhea with gas
5 CausesA blockage in the lining of the appendix that results in infection is the likely cause of appendicitis. The bacteria multiply rapidly, causing the appendix to become inflamed, swollen and filled with pus. If not treated promptly, the appendix can rupture.
6 ComplicationAppendicitis can cause serious complications, such as: A ruptured appendix. A rupture spreads infection throughout your abdomen (peritonitis). Possibly life-threatening, this condition requires immediate surgery to remove the appendix and clean abdominal cavity. A pocket of pus that forms in the abdomen. If appendix bursts, may develop a pocket of infection (abscess).
7 DiagnosisAppendicitis is diagnosed by physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging tests. During a physical examination, the doctor palpates the abdomen to find tender and painful spots.A physical examination can also include a rectal examination, examination of the genitals in boys, and a gynecologic examination in girls, because other conditions, such as testicular torsion and ectopic pregnancy may have symptoms similar to appendicitis.Laboratory tests involve an analysis of white blood cell count to determine whether infection is present, urinalysis to rule out urinary tract or kidney infection, and other tests, such as pregnancy and liver function tests, to rule out other causes of abdominal pain. Imaging tests can include abdominal x rays, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT).
9 Investigation of acute appendicitis • Urine analysis—up to 40% can have abnormalities • Pregnancy test—to exclude pregnancy • Full blood count—neutrophil ( > 75%) predominant leucocytosis is present in 80-90% • C reactive protein—raised concentration may be present, but its absence should not exclude a diagnosis of appendicitis
11 TreatmentAppendicitis is treated by immediate surgery to remove the appendix, called an appendectomy. Appendectomy is the most common emergency surgery performed by pediatric surgeons. In an open appendectomy, the appendix is removed through a standard abdominal incision. In laparoscopic appendectomy, surgeons insert a small scope through tiny abdominal incisions to remove the appendixIn female teen patients, laparascopy has the added benefit of being able to diagnose and treat gynecologic conditions and ectopic pregnancy during the appendectomy if the appendix is found to be normal.Antibiotic treatment kills bacteria, and stronger and longer courses of antibiotics are required if peritonitis occurs.