PLANNING The process of setting goals, developing strategies, and outlining tasks and schedules to accomplish the goals. ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM “Planning is bringing the future into the present so that you can do something about it now.” “He who fails to plan, plans to fail.” “Plans are nothing; planning is everything.” Dwight D. Eisenhower
WHAT IS A PROJECT? A project can thus be defined in terms of its distinctive characteristics-a project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service. A project is a series of activities leading to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and time scale. “A project is a sequence of temporary, unique, complex and connected activities having one goal or purpose and that must be completed by a specific time, within budget, and according to specifications.” ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
WHAT IS A PROJECT (CONTD.) Unique Activities The project has never happened before and will never happen again under the same conditions. Complex Activities Not simple, repetitive acts, such as mowing the lawn, running the weekly payroll, washing the car, or loading the delivery truck Connected Activities There is some order or sequence Output from one activity is input to another. Temporary Activities Start and Finish Dates ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
WHAT IS PROJECT (CONTD.) One Goal Projects must have a single goal as compared to a program. Specified Time Projects have a specified completion date Within Budget Projects also have resource limits (people, money, machines) According to Specification The customer expectation Self-imposed ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
MAIN FEATURES OF A PROJECT Projects are Temporary Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end. Product of a Project is Unique Projects involve doing something that has not been done before and which is, therefore, unique. Progressive Elaboration Progressively means "proceeding in steps; continuing steadily by increments," while elaborated means "worked out with care and detail; developed thoroughly" ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
EXAMPLES ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM Underwater train tunnel Wind farms in the middle of ocean Water highway
PROJECT OBJECTIVES ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM A project is a series of activities leading to achieve a specific outcome within a set budget and time scale. P ROJECT SCOPE The work that needs to be accomplished to deliver a product, service, or result with the specified features and functions.
PROJECT SCHEDULE ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM A project schedule is a time frame of start and completion dates of activities constituting the project. Project scheduling looks at which tasks need to be performed for a project and assigns deadlines for their completion. P ROJECT COST A project cost is an estimate that enables the organization to evaluate the feasibility of the project and to manage the capital requirements of the project.
PROJECT RESOURCE REQUIREMENTS ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM Resources are required to carry out the project tasks. They can be people, equipment, facilities, funding, or anything else required for the completion of a project activity. The lack of a resource will therefore be a constraint on the completion of the project activity. Resources are: Personnel Equipment Materials Information/Technology Money Facilities Etc
PROJECT STAKEHOLDERS ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM Stakeholders are anyone who has an interest in the project. Project stakeholders are individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project, or whose interests may be affected as a result of project execution or project completion. The following are examples of project stakeholders: Project leader Project team members Upper management Project customer Resource Managers Line Managers Product user group Project testers
OPERATIONS AND PROJECTS Two may overlap yet they share many characteristics like: Performed by people. Constrained by limited resources. Planned, executed, and controlled. Operations are ongoing and repetitive while projects are temporary and unique. ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
PROGRAM AND PROGRAM MANAGEMENT A program is different from a project. Programs are larger in scope and comprise multiple inter-related projects. Programs adopt new set of objectives and continue to work; projects cease when declared objectives have been attained The co-ordinated management of a system of projects to achieve a set of business objectives, is called Program Management. ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
PORTFOLIO & PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT A portfolio is a collection of programs and/or projects and/or other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives. The projects and programs in the portfolio may not necessarily be interdependent or directly related. ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
MANAGEMENT Art of getting resources together to accomplish desired goals. Management comprises Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling Manages deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources and natural resources ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM
PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project management is the discipline of planning, organizing, securing, managing, leading, and controlling resources to achieve specific goals. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve all of the project goals and objectives while honoring the preconceived constraints. The primary constraints are scope, time, quality and budget. The secondary —and more ambitious— challenge is to optimize the allocation of necessary inputs and integrate them to meet pre-defined objectives. ENGR.AFSHAN NASEEM