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Genetically Modified Foods By Kayla Slater Nutrition Education.

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1 Genetically Modified Foods By Kayla Slater Nutrition Education

2 Overview  Learning Objectives  Facts and Statistics  What are GM foods?  Process of GMOs  Pros of GM foods  Cons of GM foods  Conclusions  Questions

3 Learning Objectives After this presentation, students will be able to:  Define what GM foods are and how they are created  Know the benefits (pros) of GM foods  Know the health risks/environmental impact (cons) of GM foods

4 Facts and Statistics  U.S. is the largest producer of GMOs (68%)  Only four countries grow almost 90% of the total GM crops  Worldwide, only 7.5% of farmland is planted with GMOs  Most GM crops are herbicide-tolerant and/or insect-resistance  Corn, canola, soybean, and cotton are the top genetically modified plants  60-70% of processed foods contain GMOs


6 What are GM foods?  Foods derived from organisms whose DNA has been modified  Highly controversial

7 Process of GM foods 1. identify gene(s) 2. isolate gene 3. insert gene into organism 4. grow in lab 5. if successful, plant seeds 6. if successful, make commercially available

8 Pros of GM foods  Increase nutrient content  Improve taste  Increase pest and disease resistance  Decrease use of pesticides  Increase supply of food/yield  Reduces famine and starvation  Promise of more harvests

9 Pros of GM Foods continued  Reduces cost (less pesticides used)  Longer shelf life  Grows faster  Desirable traits  Medicinal foods  Improves efficiencies in production

10 Supporters of GMOs  WHO – GM foods are not likely to present risks for human health  FDA – generally regarded as safe, although there is no adequate testing, but no reports of illness or injury  David Zilberman, U.C. Berkely agricultural and environmental economist – the benefits of GM crops greatly outweigh health risks  U.S. government – “GM crops are safe, resist disease better, and can provide much-needed food in starving nations.”

11 Cons of GM foods  Potential Health Risks: Changes can be unexpected and harmful New genes in foods can be harmful Introduction of allergens and toxins Accidental contamination Antibiotic resistance Adversely changing nutrient content

12 Cons of GM Foods continued  Environment impact: Extinction of plants Less resistant to some pests and more susceptible to others Loss of genetic diversity Genetic catastrophe

13 Opponents of GMOs  Europe – resistant to using biotechnology; created regulations/labeling  Little is known about the long-term affect  Consumers lack trust in producers and want labeling/stricter regulations  Ethical concerns (global, societal, and individualistic)

14 Conclusion  GM foods are highly controversial  Many pros of GM foods  Many cons of GM foods

15 References Baker, G.A. & Burnham, T. A. (2001, Dec.). Consumer Response to Genetically Modified Foods: Market Segment Analysis and Implications for Producers and Policy Makers. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 26 (2), 387-403. Retrieved from Barash, C.I. (2008). Just Genes: The Ethics of Genetic Technologies. Retrieved from de0edaf1a21e%40sessionmgr113&vid=1&hid=104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2Z Q%3d%3d#db=nlebk&AN=218246 Catini, A. (2009, Jan-Feb). Benefits and Concerns Associated with Biotechnology Derived Foods: Can Additional Research Reduce Children Health Risks? European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 13 (1), 41-50. Retrieved from 4f0d-8be3-a36f3b254d06%40sessionmgr10&vid=9&hid=2

16 References continued Freedman, D.H. (2013, Sept.). Are Engineered Foods Evil? Scientific American, 309 (3), 80-86. Retrieved from cc7bfc8d-3d69-4f0d-8be3a36f3b254d06@sessionmgr10&hid=6&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWRzLWxpdmU=#db= edsgao&AN=edsgcl.342485343 Frewer, L., Lassen, J., Kettlitz, B., Scholderer, J., Beekman, V., Berdal, K.G. (2004, July). Societal Aspects of Genetically Modified Foods. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 43 (7), 1181-1193. Godheja, J. (2013, May). Impact of GMO’s on Environment and Human Health. Recent Research in Science & Technology, 5 (5), 26-29. Retrieved from 4f0d-8be3-a36f3b254d06%40sessionmgr10&vid=7&hid=2 Green Peace European Unit (2008, April). Facts and Figures About Genetically Modified Organisms. Retrieved from

17 References continued Heit, J. (2013, March 22). Genetically Engineered Foods. Retrieved from Kolb, R.W. (2007). The Ethics of Genetic Commerce. Retrieved from 42dba790749b9a870c31%40sessionmgr111&vid=1&hid=104&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbG l2ZQ%3d%3d#db=nlebk&AN=202246 Kuiper, H. A., Kleter, G. A., Noteborn, H. P., Kok, E. J. (2001, Sept.). Assessment of food safety issues related to genetically modified foods. The plant journal, 27 (6), 503-528. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-313X.2001.01119.x U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2013, April 7). Questions and Answers on Food from Genetically Engineered Plants. Retrieved from

18 References continued WebMD (2013). Are Biotech Foods Safe to Eat? Retrieved from recipes/features/are-biotech-foods-safe-to-eat World Health Organization (2013). Food, Genetically modified. Retrieved from

19 Questions?

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