Urethelial tumor of the renal pelvis 4% of urethelial tumors. Male-Female ratio 4-1. High incidence of multicentric. Etiology: Risk factor: smoking industrial dye,solvent, analgesic such as phenacetin,aspirin,caffeine, acetaminophen.. Pathology: Majority are Transitional cell carcinoma. Rarely squamous cell carcinoma,or adenocarcinoma.
Pathology of TCC. Metastasis : Regional LNs,Lung,bone. Staging: TNM: Ta.Tis: confined to mucosa. T1 Invasion of lamina propria. T2 Invasion of muscularis. T3a Invasion of deep muscles. T3b Extension into fat or renal parechyma. T4 Spread to adjacent organs. N+ LNs Metastasis. M+ Distant metastasis.
Neuroblastoma of Adrenal Gland -Origin:Neural crest. -Age:1 st 2 ½ yrs. -Poor prognosis. -Hereditary. -Rarely bilateral. Clinical Findings: Symptoms : Abdominal mass (parent). Symptoms related to metastases (failure to thrive, Fever,malaise,bone pain,constipation,diarrhea).
Signs : - Palpable,visible abdominal mass. -In metastatic patient: enlarged nodular liver,mass in bone,ocular protrusion. - Hypertension. Laboratory Findings: -Anemia. -Increase level of serum epinephrine, nor epinephrine, and urinary VMA. X-ray Findings: U.S, I.V.P, CT, Angiography.
Treatment: Localized Tumor: - Tumor Excision followed by radiotherapy to the tumor bed -Very large tumor :Radiotherapy followed by excision. Metastatic Tumor: Chemotherapy.