2 DefinitionsLockout/Tagout (LOTO) - Risk to individuals working on powered equipment or machinery can be minimized by adhering to the six step process of LOTO.Lockout/Tagout gets its name from the equipment usedLockout/Tagout must be used whenever you are performing service or maintenance on any machine where you or someone else could be injured by the unexpected startup or release of stored energyLOTO DOES NOT APPLY to single source plug and cord equipment when the equipment is unplugged and under the exclusive control of the person performing the work
3 DefinitionsLOTO Device - A device such as a lock, circuit breaker cover, etc. that secures an energy isolating device and prevents energization of a machine, equipment or processCaution Tag - Yellow Caution Tags are used to indicate that a machine, equipment, process or circuit is out of service or inoperableEnergy Isolating Device - A mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, such as a circuit breaker or disconnect switch
4 DefinitionsIndividual LOTO Lock - A type of key lock that is used for no other purpose in the facility/operation, having one key, and for which master keys are not available. Such locks are individually assigned (personal lock) to Authorized Employees, or can be obtained from a central repository of LOTO devices, whereupon they become personal locks while in use by an individual. LOTO Locks are typically colored red.Individual LOTO Tags- These tags are used with every Personal LOTO Lock to indicate that the energy source is locked out and that an Authorized Employee is actively working on the machine, equipment, process, or circuit.Show employee(s) the individual locks and tags thatare used on site.
5 DefinitionsSupervisor Lock - A key lock for which multiple keys may be made available and which is used on equipment or processes when they are not actively being serviced. Key control or access must be limited to a small, closely controlled group of Authorized Employees. This lock must be used in combination with a Supervisor Tag to indicate the equipment is unsafe to operate.This lock must not be used as an Personal Lock and may never be used on equipment that is being actively serviced.Supervisor Tag - Must be yellow in color and are used to indicate that a machine, equipment, process or circuit is out of service or inoperable, but no one is actively working on the system. Supervisor Tags are not to be used in place of Red Tags. No activity to the machine, equipment, process or circuit may occur when a Supervisor Tag is placed.Show employee(s) the Supervisor locks and tags that are used on site
6 DefinitionsGeneral LOTO Lock - A key lock that is not assigned to an individual employee as an Individual LOTO Lock. This lock has only one key and master keys are not available. When a Group LOTO is used, this lock may be used to Lock Out individual Energy Isolating Devices or Energy Sources. This lock may be left on for durations of greater than one shift. This lock is unique within the facility and is to be used only for LOTO.Show employee(s) the general LOTO locks that are used on site
7 Personnel Affected by Lockout Tagout Every employee who will be in close proximity to any machinery or equipment being worked on will be affected by Lockout/Tagout.Authorized EmployeeAffected Employee
8 Personnel Affected by Lockout Tagout Authorized Employee - An employee who has the appropriate technical background, has completed Lockout/Tagout Authorized Training, has successfully demonstrated that they know how to apply EC/LOTO, and who will perform the work on the system. This could include an electrician, pipefitter or other specialist with knowledge of the equipment.Affected Employee - An employee who operates equipment that is being maintained or serviced under EC/LOTO, or an employee working in an area where the maintenance or servicing is being performed. This could include machine operators, janitors or any other worker whose job requires him/her to be in the area. Affected Employees are NOT authorized to perform EC/LOTO.Discuss the employee(s) role with lockout tag out and whether or not they are Affected or Authorized employees.
9 Energy Isolation Device A mechanical device that prevents transmission or release of hazardous energyCircuit BreakersDisconnect SwitchesLine ValvesBlock ValvesManually Operated Switches
11 Types of Lockout/Tagout Devices Plug lockHaspBall valve locksGroup lockbox
12 Types of Hazardous Energy MechanicalRelating to springs, rotating parts, etc.MagneticCan be found in capacitors and superconducting magnetic energy storageGravityCan be found in machinery or equipment parts that might descend, slide or fall if left unblockedElectricalRelating to or operated by electricity – AC or DCHydraulicInvolving, moved or operated by a fluid under pressure, either internal or externalPneumaticMay be in cylinders, lines and pipesThermalCan be hot or cold
13 Types of Hazardous Energy ChemicalProduced as a result of a chemical reactionSteamWater vapor kept under pressure so as to supply energy for heating or mechanical work
14 Hazardous EnergyRemember: To proceed with any maintenance or servicing, hazardous energy must be identified and controlled to prevent injury.All energy sources must be identified and labeled.Show employees examples of the site’s LOTO procedures including:Where they are locatedHow the LOTO points are labeled
15 Employee Training Authorized Employees must: Recognize hazardous energy sources including type and magnitude present in the work placeKnow the methods and means to isolate and control hazardous energy sourcesPerform an annual demonstration to show they know how to properly apply LOTO*In addition to this training course, Authorized Employee’s must also go through the periodic inspection/certification form located in the Lockout/Tagout program. Your Supervisor is responsible for completing this addition requirement.Employee Retraining is required when:There is a change in job assignmentThere is a change in energy control proceduresInspections indicate deviations in proceduresEmployer believes employee needs retraining
16 Six Step Process Step 1 - Prepare for Shutdown Notify all affected employees in the area that the equipment is going to be shut down and locked out.Understand the problemWhat needs to be fixed?PlanAre the proper tools available?PrepareIs the area clear and are warnings posted?
17 Six Step Process Step 2 – Shut Down the Equipment Use established proceduresInvolve the worker who normally shuts down the equipmentIf the work is being performed at a customer site, the customer should shut down the equipment
18 Six Step Process Step 3 - Isolate the Equipment Disconnect the equipment from each hazardous energy source and know the proper order of shutdownRemember to wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) appropriate for any hazards in the area Use common isolation techniques including closing valves and opening electrical disconnectsRemember to stand to one side when opening electrical disconnects in the event an electrical arc occurs
19 Six Step Process Step 4 - Apply Lockout/Tagout Devices Only use approved colored locks and tags designated for lockoutNO MASTER KEY is allowed for a personal lockLocks must be attached to the energy-isolating deviceThere should be one lock per person working on equipment, at each energy source, unless a group lockbox is usedIf multiple employees a lockbox and/or multiple lock hasps may be usedNever lend or borrow locks or keysNever use lockout locks for any other purpose
20 Six Step Process Step 5 - Control Stored and Residual Energy Check that all moving parts have stopped.Relieve or disconnect any residual hazardous energy that could be present.Bleed-off all trapped pressure.Blank pipe flanges.Install ground wires to discharge electrical capacitors.Block or support elevated equipment.
21 Six Step Process Step 6 - Verify Isolation/Zero Energy Start by verifying that all testing equipment (e.g., voltmeter, etc.) is working properlyTry to turn the equipment onTest for voltageCheck gaugesCheck Double Block and BleedCheck temperature with an independent deviceCheck blocks and pinsReturn switches to the “OFF”Notify Affected Employees in the area that work is to begin
22 Release of Lockout/Tagout Check for others. When the assigned repair or servicing task is completed and the machine is ready for testing or return to service, check the area surrounding the shut off unit to assure that no one will be exposed to danger when that machine is started up. Replace all guards and reactivate all interlocks.Notify all affected employees that locks/tags are going to be removed and the machine is ready for operation.Remove LOTO equipment. When the area is clear, remove all locks and de-activate all the energy isolating devices to restore energy and material to the machine. The same worker who installed the energy isolating devices and installed the locks must de-activate and remove them.Test the machine. Perform any necessary testing of the restored machine to ensure it is in operable condition.Notify the management that work is completed and the area has been returned to operational condition.
23 Things We Cannot Do!DO NOTRely on emergency stopsRely on interlocks and light curtainsRely on another worker to “guard the power source”Why can’t we do these thingsEmergency stops and interlocks can failHuman error- people can get distractedInjuries are not caused intentionally, it happens when things are overlooked and things “accidentally” happen (doors shutting behind someone, accidentally pushing a button, etc.)The whole point of lockout tag out is so that it cannot be bypassed. It removes the factor of other countermeasures like e-stops and interlocks failing as well as removing the “human error” element!
24 Special Situations Group Lockout Each authorized individual performing service and/or maintenance must apply his/her personal lock. Every authorized individual who applies a personal lock shall verify that the machine, equipment, process or circuit has attained a zero energy state or observe the verification process. Multiple lock application can be accomplished with the following:Multiple lock devices (hasps) that accommodate several personal Iocks;The use of general locks and a lock box. For example, if a machine with multiple energy sources is going to be serviced by multiple personnel, it may be useful to use general locks at the energy sources. Keys for the general locks are held in lock boxes to which employees attach their personal locks.Discuss the site’s procedure for group lockout including:Color of locks usedWhen it is to be used (give examples of machines and specific jobs)
25 Special SituationsSpecific procedures shall be utilized during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of LOTO protection. This includes provisions for the orderly transfer of LOTO devices between off going and on coming authorized individuals. There are two distinct methods of shift or personnel change LOTO transition. These methods should never be mixed or combined.Option 1: The immediate hand-off of LOTO in progress. Authorized individuals of the outgoing shift remove their personal locks and tags. Authorized individuals of the next shift simultaneously apply and secure their personal locks and tags at the same energy-isolating device and verify that a zero energy state exists in the system.Option 2: Application of Supervisor Locks. Authorized individuals use this method when servicing and/or maintenance continues over multiple shifts, but there is no immediate hand-off of LOTO in progress.Discuss the site’s procedure for shift change including:Color of locks and tags used (show them the locks and tags that will be used)How and when to apply or remove shift change locks and tags
26 Special SituationsUnauthorized removal of locks and tags is prohibited. The Supervisor or qualified person shall use the following procedure when the employee is not available:Verify that the authorized employee is not on site and available to remove his or her own tag.Check that employees are not exposed to hazards.Verify that the equipment is safe to operate, tools have been removed, and guards have been replaced.Remove lock/tag and energize equipment.Remain with affected equipment so that no one returns while equipment or process is being restarted.Require that the affected employee knows the lockout device has been removed before he/she resumes work.The “Lockout/Tagout Removal Notice in the Lockout Tagout program must be completed.Discuss the site’s procedure for lock removal
27 DO NOT ASSUME ALL IS SAFE – ALWAYS RE-VERIFY Special SituationsNew person(s) working on the system: Any new person working on the system must follow all lockout procedures.Returning to do more work: If you return to do more work, follow full lockout procedure to assure nothing has changed.Removing another person’s lock: NO ONE ELSE should remove an individual’s lock and tag.DO NOT ASSUME ALL IS SAFE – ALWAYS RE-VERIFY
28 Special SituationsWhen power must be temporarily restored to a machine to test or position the machine, equipment or components, the following sequence of actions shall be followed. At no time should you place any body parts in a danger area!! This procedure is for observation purposes and adjustments that can be made outside of the danger area!!!!Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials.Notify all affected employees that you are removing lockout/tag out device(s) and ensure that they are safely positioned or cleared from the area.Remove the lockout device as specified in the lockout removal section of this procedure.Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.When testing or positioning is completed, de-energize all systems and reapply the energy control measures in this procedure.