Presentation on theme: "Nazi Deportation of Hungarian Jews at the Expense of Losing the War"— Presentation transcript:
1Nazi Deportation of Hungarian Jews at the Expense of Losing the War Lisa ArmstrongSt. Thomas Aquinas High SchoolOverland Park, KS
2The HolocaustThe Holocaust refers to a specific genocidal event in twentieth-century history: the state-sponsored, systematic persecution and annihilation of European Jewry by Nazi Germany and its collaborators between 1933 and 1945.Definition from
3Nazis Transform Germany into a “Racial State” Nuremberg Laws passed in Germany to revoke Jewish citizenship and rights beginning in 1933Nazis begin the war against Jews
4Expanding the Racial Campaigns March 1938: Germany occupies AustriaMarch 1939: Germany occupies CzechoslovakiaSeptember 1939: Germany invades PolandJews of Poland put into ghettosJune 1941: Germany invades RussiaEinsatzgruppen: Mobile Killing SquadsFeb. 1942: Auschwitz opensAs the Nazis wage war in Europe, they also continue their assault on Jews.
5Hungary before WWII Modern Hungary est. 1918 One of Germany’s most loyal alliesAntisemitic government
6Antisemitism in Hungary Prewar: Pogroms, restrictions from attending universities, eliminations from public service1938: Anti-Jewish laws passed1941: Exiled 17,000 “stateless Jews”—those who were not used as slave laborers were executed by Nazi Einsatzgruppen
7Portrait of Szenka and Florika Liebmann. Bela Liebmann ( ?), Hungarian Jewish photographer and businessman.In addition to running his store, he also did photography in local theaters. In 1932 Liebmann married his first wife, Szerena (Szenka) Hortobagyi (b. 1912), and two years later their daughter Flora (Florika) was born. During World War II Liebmann was conscripted into the Hungarian labor service. His wife and daughter were deported, and in April 1945 were killed along with 38 other victims, in the village of Weissenbach by retreating SS soldiers.
8Hungary during WWII1938: Ally of Germany in taking over Czechoslovakia1941: Aided Germany in the invasion of Russia1943: Hitler upset with Hungary’s seeming “neutrality” in the war, and for not doing more to “eliminate” their Jews (Dawidowicz 379).
10German Occupation of Hungary March, 1944: Hitler declares occupationSS and Reich leader Edmund Veesenmeyer rules Hungarian government
11Arrow Cross Party Antisemitic Hungarian Intimidated and harrassed Jews 1944 ordered remaining Jews of Budapest into ghetto
12Intimidation by Nazi forces Gestapo moved into Hungarian townsListed all wealthy individualsTook leaders into custodyThreatened to shoot leaders if the wealthy wouldn’t pay (Gilbert 662).A synagogue used as a warehouse for the belongings of deported Jews. Szeged ghetto, Hungary, 1944.
13A synagogue used as a warehouse for the belongings of deported Jews A synagogue used as a warehouse for the belongings of deported Jews. Szeged ghetto, Hungary, 1944.
14Deportations Adolf Eichmann 10 March 1944: meeting at Mauthausen concentration camp to plan the deportation of 750,000 Jews of Hungary
15Deportations on this scale required the coordination of numerous German government agencies including the Reich Security Main Office (RSHA), the Main Office of the Order Police, the Ministry of Transportation, and the Foreign Office. The RSHA or regional SS and police leaders coordinated and often directed the deportations. The Order Police, often reinforced by local auxiliaries or collaborators in occupied territories, rounded up and transported the Jews to the extermination camps. The Ministry of Transportation coordinated train schedules. The Foreign Office negotiated with Germany's Axis allies over the transfer of their Jewish citizens to German custody.The Germans attempted to disguise their intentions. They sought to portray the deportations as a "resettlement" of the Jewish population in labor camps in the "East." In reality, the "resettlement" in the "East" was a euphemism for transport to the extermination camps and mass murder.The Germans used both freight and passenger cars for the deportations. The deportees were usually not given food or water for the journey, even when they had to wait for days on railroad spurs for other trains to pass. Those packed in sealed freight cars suffered from overcrowding. They endured intense heat during the summer and freezing temperatures during the winter. Aside from a bucket, there was no sanitary facility. The stench of urine and excrement added to the humiliation and suffering of the deportees. Lacking food and water, many of the deportees died before the trains reached their destinations. The transports were accompanied by armed police guards who had orders to shoot anyone who tried to escape.
16RailroadsPrincipal means for transporting troops, munitions, supplies & raw materials (Hilberg)Daily usage for military and industrial purposesYET, freight trains also used for deportations of JewsTrains required and necessary for the war effort were used to transport Jews as well.
17First Deportations March 19, 1944: Nazis occupy Hungary 200 Jewish doctors and lawyers from Budapest deported to MauthausenNazis sent 12,000 Hungarian Jews a day to AuschwitzA transport of Jews from Hungary arrives at Auschwitz-Birkenau. Poland, May __________
18Deportation of Jews. Koszeg, Hungary, July 1944.
19DeportationsBy June 7, 290,000 Jews from Carpathia & Transylvania (where Elie Wiesel is from) had been deportedBy July 7, over 437,000 Hungarian Jews had been deported to Auschwitz. (Dawidowicz)__Jewish residents of the Szeged ghetto assemble for deportation. Szeged, Hungary, June 1944.________
20Portrait of an engaged Jewish couple in Cluj. Pictured are Jolande Markovits (the donor's sister) and Bela Blau. Blau was on leave from his Hungarian labor battalion. Blau survived the labor battalion and deportation to Auschwitz. Jolande perished in Auschwitz.
21Slave LaborThousands were also sent to the border with Austria to be deployed at digging fortification trenches.100,000 Hungarian Jews were brought to German Labor Camps because “Hitler allowed Himmler and Speer to bring some Jews into Germany to add to the labor force needed for military production” (Bergman 212).
23DeportationsBy the end of July 1944, the only Jewish community left in Hungary was that of Budapest, the capital.Elderly Jews are transferred from their assigned houses to a ghetto area. Budapest, Hungary, November or December 1944.
24A group of children poses on the balcony of an apartment in Budapest A group of children poses on the balcony of an apartment in Budapest. [Photograph #14657]
28Night by Elie Wiesel Nonfiction Sighet, in the region of Transylvania, Hungary
29World ResponseListening to London news--1942, progress of AlliesRussian army making progress--1944
30Persecution Gradual reduction of rights Einsatzgruppen--Moshe’s reportsGhetto experience“liquidation” of the ghettotrain ride to Birkenau
31A deserted street in the area of the Sighet Marmatiei ghetto A deserted street in the area of the Sighet Marmatiei ghetto. This photograph was taken after the deportation of the ghetto population. Sighet Marmatiei, Hungary, May 1944.
32Antisemitism/Racism Dehumanization in the camps Bystanders watching them leave the ghettoBystanders watching them on the death march
33concentration camps--Auschwitz, Buna, Gleiwitz, Buchenwald The Final SolutionDeath camp--Birkenauconcentration camps--Auschwitz, Buna, Gleiwitz, Buchenwald
34Former prisoners of the "little camp" in Buchenwald stare out from the wooden bunks in which they slept three to a "bed."Elie Wiesel is pictured in the second row of bunks, seventh from the left, next to the vertical beam. [Photograph #74607]
35President Bill Clinton (center), Elie Wiesel (right) and Harvey Meyerhoff (left) light the eternal flame outside on the Eisenhower Plaza during the dedication ceremony of the U.S. Holocaust Museum.Date: Apr 22, Locale: Washington, DC United States
37Better Late than Never Arrived in Budapest in July of 1944 Agent of American War Refugee BoardSwedish Government
38At the Jozsefvarosi train station in Budapest, Raoul Wallenberg (at right, with hands clasped behind his back) rescues Hungarian Jews from deportation by providing them with protective passes. Budapest, Hungary, 1944.
39Swedish Passports 250,000 Jews remained in Hungary Holders under the protection of Swedish legation until emigration to SwedenSwedish "protective pass" issued to Lili Katz, a Hungarian Jew. The document was initialed by Raoul Wallenberg (bottom left). Budapest, Hungary, August 25, 1944.
40Raoul Wallenberg (seated) at the Swedish legation, with his Hungarian Jewish co-workers. Wallenberg provided thousands of Hungarian Jews with Swedish protective passes. Budapest, November 1944.
41Swedish Housing Nazis wouldn’t allow Jews to cross Germany into Sweden Wallenberg purchased or rented 32 buildings in BudapestHoused at least 20,000 Jews awaiting “emigration” to SwedenSandor and Berta Guttman with their nine children in a safe house in Budapest.Emma Guttman (now Eisner) is the daughter of Sandor and Berta Guttman. She was born in Uzhorod, then part of Czechoslovakia, and had seven siblings. In 1935 the family was forced to leave their hometown because Sandor was a Hungarian Jew. The Guttmans then moved to Budapest, where they lived for the next ten years. Emma's entire family survived the war in Budapest in a safe house secured by the Swedish diplomat, Raul Wallenberg. After the war Emma left for Germany, where she settled in the Pocking displaced persons camp. There she met Ignacz (now Irving) Eisner. They married on February 8, 1949 and one month later left for Israel, sailing on board the Negba immigrant ship.
42Protection of “Sealed Ghetto” Wallenberg saved 70,000 Jews by demanding that German commander prevent eminent murdersConvinced commander that he would be hung when the Russians cameA group of Hungarian Jews rescued from deportation by Swedish diplomat Raoul Wallenberg. Budapest, Hungary, November 1944.
43Wallenberg the HeroHe gave us the sense that we were still human beings. My mother and I were among thousands taken one night to stay at a brick factory outside Budapest. There was no food, no water, no sanitation facilities, no light. Then Wallenberg appeared and said he would try to return with passports, or “safety passes,” as we called them and would also try to get medical attention and sanitation facilities. Soon afterward, some doctors and nurses came from the Jewish Hospital. The point about Wallenberg is that he came himself. He talked to us and showed us that one human being cared about what was happening to us (Facing History 409).WRITTEN BY SUSAN TABON, HUNGARIAN JEW SAVED BY WALLENBERG
44Elie Wiesel on Wallenberg: “Sadly, tragically, Raoul Wallenberg belonged to a small minority. And his mission started late, much too late, at a time when, except for those in the Hungarian capital, there were no more Jews left to be saved. Why had he not been sent earlier? Why had other diplomats not been dispatched to other cities on similar rescue operations? What would have happened if, in 1943, neutral nations had offered protection to the Jews of Warsaw, if great powers had offered citizenship to the Jews of Paris and Amsterdam?”
45How would you answer Wiesel’s questions? Would such an effort have stopped fate or even reversed it?
46IT IS NOT ENOUGH TO BE COMPASSIONATE; YOU MUST ACT
47Resources Bergen, Doris. War and Genocide. Chamberlain, Scott. The Last Days: A Study Guide. Shoah Foundation. Los AngelesDawidowicz, Lucy S. The War Against the Jews Bantam Books. New York 1975.Facing History and Ourselves: Holocaust and Human Behavior. Brookline, MassGilbert, Martin. The Macmillan Atlas of the Holocaust. Da Capo Press. New York 1982.Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War. Holt, Rinehart & Winston. New York 1985.Hilberg, Raul. Destruction of the European Jews.Wiesel, Elie. Night. Bantam Books. New York 1960.Wiesel, Elie. Memoirs: All Rivers Run to the Sea. Shocken Books. New York, 1995.