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Unit 2 The First Civilizations

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1 Unit 2 The First Civilizations
Egypt, India Middle East China

2 The Nile River Valley (Egypt)
6000 B.C.E. – 300 B.C.E

3 Geography The Nile River – Longest River in the World. (4,160 Miles)
River flows South to North into a Fan Wind blows North to South Trade, Travel, Linking Kingdom (Uniting) Transportation, Supply of Water Cataracts (or rapids)

4 HERODOTUS “When the Nile overflows, it floods both its banks to an average distance of forty miles. But why it does so I find it impossible to discover….I would particularly like to know why it starts flooding in mid-summer, of all times, and goes on doing so for over three months before sinking back to its original level…”

5 Egyptian Civilization along 750 miles of the Nile
? Egyptian Civilization along 750 miles of the Nile Heavy Rains = Summer Floods Farmers (Two to Three crops a year) Food? Canals (Irrigation systems) Planning promoted cooperation among people. Granite, Sandstone & Limestone in River (Building materials)

6 Natural Barriers Nubian & Libyan Deserts Mediterranean & Red Seas
Well protected from invaders Isthmus of Suez – Land bridge between Africa & Asia (Trade, Idea exchanges) How did the Nile River contribute to the development of Egyptian civilization?

7 Hieroglyphics Characteristics of a Civilization (5) What are they?
3000 B.C. Nile Valley People developed Hieroglyphics (form of writing) 600 signs, pictures, symbols that represents words and sounds Carved in stone hard materials Scribes – read and wrote, worked for church & government


9 Papyrus Egyptian discovered a way to make paper Papyrus = Paper
Ink - soot, water, and plant juice (brush – rush) Documents: medical books, calendars, stories, poems, & prayers Easy to carry around (clay)

10 Rosetta Stone 1798 French Army invaded Egypt
French officer discovered unusual stone Why the name Rosetta? Carved in Stone (Greek, hieroglyphics, demotic) French language expert solved the mystery of hieroglyphics, used G Greek to decode it

11 Old Kingdom 2680 B.C. to 2180 B.C.

12 3200 B.C. Menes (King Upper) united Upper & Lower Egypt
Founded Dynasty – Rule passed through Family Pharaoh (great house) held all power (government, judges, high priests, army & trade) Pyramid Age & Great Sphinx – stood as symbols glory of Egyptian Civilization Three Pyramids built in Giza (King Khufu) (Khafre) (Menkaure) Sphinx stands to guard Khafre’s pyramid

13 Upper (Pharaoh, royal family, scribes, government, priests, nobles)
Two classes Lower (peasants, farmers, army, labor) Could improve status but not class Upper (Pharaoh, royal family, scribes, government, priests, nobles) Women equal status to men (could own property) Nobility became stronger, Pharaoh’s power weakened (Ended Kingdom) Civil wars (100 years)

14 Middle Kingdom 2050 B.C. to 1780 B.C.

15 “Golden Age” (Stability, Prosperity, & Increased Trade)
New line of Pharaoh’s reunited Egypt Period of Time: “Hyksos” (Foreigners) Asia – introduced new war tools chariot, compound bow Nobility regroups grows strong again Hyksos was driven out of Egypt

16 1570 B.C. to 1080 B.C. New Kingdom

17 Great Pharaohs regain power (city of Thebes)
Powerful & Strong Army Gained territory (Eastern end of Mediterranean) Built Empire ruling over Ethnic Groups Hatshepsut ( B.C.) – First known female Pharaoh (death of husband) Strong ruler, maintain boarders, built trade with other lands

18 Before belief in many Gods (Polytheism)
1380 B.C. to 1362 B.C. Pharaoh Amenhotep IV ( Social and Religious change) Before belief in many Gods (Polytheism) Amenhotep believed in one God (Monotheism) “The Sun” God symbolized by solar disk (Aton) Pharaoh changed name (Akhenaton) “he who is pleasing to Aton”

19 People didn’t want change in one God
Akhenaton dies priests gain control Ramses II – (1279 B.C. to 1213 B.C.) Ramses the Great Held Empire together, Built many Temples & Monuments Last Great Pharaoh Series of Sea People weakened Egypt Assyrians, Nubians, & Persians attacked By 300 B.C. rule by Egyptians Ended

20 e

21 Achievements Mined Copper, made Bronze
Engineering skills – Pyramids, Tombs, Canals (Irrigation systems) 365 Day Calendar Medical advances – Surgery, Setting the Bone Chariot, Compound Bow Making paper out of papyrus plant Sculpture, pottery

22 Bookmark Project Front Side- Translate first name into new Egyptian name Draw symbols vertically on Bookmark Color and decorate front side Back side- Pick 5 symbols that represent you Separate Paper (Paragraph) 1.What the symbol means? 2.Why it represents you?

23 Examples

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