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Fundamentals of Networking

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Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Networking"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fundamentals of Networking
Discovery 1, Chapter 1 Personal Computer Hardware

2 Objectives After completing this chapter, you will meet these objectives: Identify the purpose & uses of personal computers and describe local and network applications. Compare and contrast different types of computing devices. Explain the binary representation of data. Determine appropriate components and peripheral devices to meet requirements. Install, verify, and upgrade computer components and peripherals.

3 How & Where Computers are Used
What are they used for at home? How about in the government? School? How about cars? Computers are integrated in lots of devices TV’s, cash register, ATM, fridge, planes

4 Common Features Hardware (physical) OS- Required Application Software
Manages the hardware Controls the resources, like memory Application Software Program loaded to perform specific function Can you name an example?

5 Application Software Business/Industry-specific General Use
Designed specially Medical CAD Educational Mitchell on Demand- Auto General Use Wide range use & home Word processing Spreadsheet Accounting

6 Local or Network Local Application Network Application Stored on HD
Works on that PC Network Application Runs over network (Internet) 2 components One parts runs on local Other part runs on remote host is a good example

7 Activity 1. G, N 2. G, L B, L 4. B, N G, N G, L

8 Review What makes Word a local application?
Stored on the computer’s hard drive Application software can fit into what two categories? General use & industry specific General Use or Industry Specific? PowerPoint Medical Patient software PowerSchool Access

9 Classes of Computers Mainframes Servers Desktops Workstations Laptops
Hand-held portable devices

10 Servers High performance Multiple CPUs, lots of RAM, storage
Provide a service to clients , web, files, print sharing The services are important Has redundant parts Needs to be available at all times Backups Kept in secure area

11 Workstations High-powered business computers
Designed for special high-end apps 3-D, CAD, Video Animation, Virtual Reality Multiple CPUs, lots of RAM, multiple, high-capacity drives Usually have very powerful graphics capabilities and a large monitor or multiple monitors.

12 Activity 1. W 2. D 3. W D 5. S

13 Portable Devices Laptop, Tablet, PDA, Cell, Gaming Portable
Can plug into docking station External monitor, more ports Advantages? Disadvantages?

14 Review 1 Name 5 of the 6 classes of computers.
Servers, Workstations, Desktops, Portable, Mainframe, Handheld Where do workstations & servers keep data stored? Hard drive A local application is stored where? On the PC’s hard drive How is a server different than a workstation? Server provides services to other computers (clients)

15 Review 2 Why hook a laptop to a docking station?
External monitor, more ports What’s another word for redundant? Duplicate T or F. Servers need redundant parts because they require more power. False Why do servers need redundant parts? They need to be accessed by clients all the time

16 Binary On (1) or Off (0)  BITS
Used to represent letters, numbers, graphics, etc ASCII What is your name in ASCII? 1.3.1 Each letter, number, etc, is 8 bits(b) = 1 byte Capital letter: A = Number: 9 = Special character: # = On/Off like a light switch

17 Measuring Data 1KB= 1024 bytes 1MB= more than a million bytes
1GB= more than a billion bytes What’s after gigabytes? Terabytes (TB)

18 Measuring Data 2 Photo: more detail= more amount of bits
5MP (3MB) vs. 10MP (8MB) Also used for storage devices Hard drive, MP3 player, etc.

19 Bits for Data Speed USB 2.0 operates at 480 mega bits per second
480,000,000 bits of information transferred per second Forty 3 megabyte (MB) song need to be transferred from your MP3 player to your computer 120MB of songs will transfer through USB in about 2 seconds 100 vacation pictures at 5MB each, transferred to your computer through USB 500MB of pictures takes about 9 seconds to transfer Larger size files take longer to transfer Calculator Link-

20 Flashback Click here A computer with 64K of RAM, and four 18 MB hard drives cost $9,329.00, An additional 18 MB hard drive costs $4, The 18 MB hard drive is about 6 inches wide, 4 inches high, and 12 inches in length, weighing about 10 pounds. This device would hold approximately five average size MP3’s.

21 Activity Conversions Find speed, HD size, HD space available, RAM on school computer & home computer

22 Digital Communication
Digital info transmits over distances without the quality becoming degraded. Modem converts bits for travel over media

23 Data Transfer Rates kbps or Mbps Download times are theoretical
Depends on connection quality, overhead, etc. How long to download an 100 5MB pictures through your Comcast 25Mbps connection? According to calculator, 3 minutes and 4 seconds Manually, you’d have to convert to bits first and then multiply Old analog modems are 56kbps.

24 Video- Bits & Bytes Video Link Not available on web

25 Other Computer Measurements
Screen Resolution Measured in pixels 1280 x 1024 (H x V) CPU Measured in Hz & GHz How fast is cycles or refreshes A 3GHz CPU executes 3,000,000,000 cycles per second

26 Lab 1.3.3 Determining the Screen Resolution of a Monitor

27 Review The basic measurement of a CPU is what?
Hertz The basic measurement of data is what? Bit How many possible values can a binary digit have? 2 Data transfer speed is usually measured in what? kbps and Mbps

28 Computer Systems Two types: Each has advantages & disadvantages
Pre-assembled Custom built Each has advantages & disadvantages

29 Pre-assembled Computers
Advantages: Lower cost Good for most applications No wait for assembly Typical for basic consumers Disadvantages: Often lack the performance level that can be obtained from custom built computers

30 Custom Built Computers
Advantages: You can specify exact components you need Generally support higher performance applications such as graphics, gaming, and server applications Disadvantages: Generally more costly than preassembled PC Longer wait for assembly

31 What Do You Consider Important?
Motherboard Processor RAM Storage Adapter Cards Case & Power

32 Motherboard Large circuit board Connects electronics
Allows components to attach It moves data between components Slots for expansion cards, certain CPU’s fit it, type of RAM, etc.

33 Processor CPU What’s the path data moves on called? Decide 1st
Speed measured in MHz, GHz Faster= more heat & consume more power Processes all data What’s the path data moves on called? Bus

34 RAM Stores data while being processed by the CPU
All programs run from RAM 2nd most important factor More RAM= better multitasking

35 Storage What happens to RAM when no power?
Hard drives are non-volatile Data does not go away when no power Magnetic storage devices HD, Floppy, Tape Optical storage devices Read only: CD, DVD Write once: CD-R, DVD-R Write many: CD-RW, DVD-RW Static memory (flash) drives USB

36 Adapter Cards Add functionality to computer

37 Case & Power Usually sold with power supply Surge Protector UPS
Case style (desktop, tower, etc) PS power requirements Surge Protector Remove spikes & surges from line UPS Internal rechargeable battery Provides battery backup in power failure Time to save & shut down

38 Review 1 Which costs more, pre-assembled or custom PC?
Which is fine for general use? Pre-assembled What is it called when you run more than one program at a time? Multitasking What is vital for multitasking? More RAM

39 Review 2 Which type of adapter card connects you to other devices in a LAN? Network card What device attempts to remove spikes from the electrical line? Surge protector What does a UPS do? Battery backup & gives you time to save & shut down What component processes all data? CPU

40 Safety & Best Practices
Before you open the case… Shut power off & remove cable DO NOT OPEN MONITORS OR POWER SUPPLIES!!!! Hot-swappable Remove components without shutting down ESD can cause damage to components Static electricity transfer Wear wrist strap/grounding strap Review

41 Installing Components
Hot swap or not? If not, unplug power Attach grounding strap Remove old component Put new one in Connect cables, close case, power up Start PC & driver load Might be in OS; Will prompt if not Get current driver from manufacturer's web site Test Note: In most current OS’s, system resources will be assigned automoatically

42 Problems? Make sure it’s on! Check system resources (old)
Check drivers Updated? Wrong one? Reseat card/unplug & re-plug Restart computer

43 Identify Ports

44 End of Chapter Review (10)

45 Fundamentals of Networking
Discovery 1, Chapter 1 Personal Computer Hardware

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