Presentation on theme: "Fundamentals of Networking"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fundamentals of Networking Discovery 1, Chapter 1Personal Computer Hardware
2 ObjectivesAfter completing this chapter, you will meet these objectives:Identify the purpose & uses of personal computers and describe local and network applications.Compare and contrast different types of computing devices.Explain the binary representation of data.Determine appropriate components and peripheral devices to meet requirements.Install, verify, and upgrade computer components and peripherals.
3 How & Where Computers are Used What are they used for at home?How about in the government?School?How about cars?Computers are integrated in lots of devicesTV’s, cash register, ATM, fridge, planes
4 Common Features Hardware (physical) OS- Required Application Software Manages the hardwareControls the resources, like memoryApplication SoftwareProgram loaded to perform specific functionCan you name an example?
5 Application Software Business/Industry-specific General Use Designed speciallyMedicalCADEducationalMitchell on Demand- AutoGeneral UseWide range use & homeWord processingSpreadsheetAccounting
6 Local or Network Local Application Network Application Stored on HD Works on that PCNetwork ApplicationRuns over network (Internet)2 componentsOne parts runs on localOther part runs on remote hostis a good example
8 Review What makes Word a local application? Stored on the computer’s hard driveApplication software can fit into what two categories?General use & industry specificGeneral Use or Industry Specific?PowerPointMedical Patient softwarePowerSchoolAccess
10 Servers High performance Multiple CPUs, lots of RAM, storage Provide a service to clients, web, files, print sharingThe services are importantHas redundant partsNeeds to be available at all timesBackupsKept in secure area
11 Workstations High-powered business computers Designed for special high-end apps3-D, CAD, Video Animation, Virtual RealityMultiple CPUs, lots of RAM, multiple, high-capacity drivesUsually have very powerful graphics capabilities and a large monitor or multiple monitors.
13 Portable Devices Laptop, Tablet, PDA, Cell, Gaming Portable Can plug into docking stationExternal monitor, more portsAdvantages?Disadvantages?
14 Review 1 Name 5 of the 6 classes of computers. Servers, Workstations, Desktops, Portable, Mainframe, HandheldWhere do workstations & servers keep data stored?Hard driveA local application is stored where?On the PC’s hard driveHow is a server different than a workstation?Server provides services to other computers (clients)
15 Review 2 Why hook a laptop to a docking station? External monitor, more portsWhat’s another word for redundant?DuplicateT or F. Servers need redundant parts because they require more power.FalseWhy do servers need redundant parts?They need to be accessed by clients all the time
16 Binary On (1) or Off (0) BITS Used to represent letters, numbers, graphics, etcASCIIWhat is your name in ASCII? 1.3.1Each letter, number, etc, is 8 bits(b) = 1 byteCapital letter: A =Number: 9 =Special character: # =On/Off like a light switch
17 Measuring Data 1KB= 1024 bytes 1MB= more than a million bytes 1GB= more than a billion bytesWhat’s after gigabytes?Terabytes (TB)
18 Measuring Data 2 Photo: more detail= more amount of bits 5MP (3MB) vs. 10MP (8MB)Also used for storage devicesHard drive, MP3 player, etc.
19 Bits for Data Speed USB 2.0 operates at 480 mega bits per second 480,000,000 bits of information transferred per secondForty 3 megabyte (MB) song need to be transferred from your MP3 player to your computer120MB of songs will transfer through USB in about 2 seconds100 vacation pictures at 5MB each, transferred to your computer through USB500MB of pictures takes about 9 seconds to transferLarger size files take longer to transferCalculator Link-
20 FlashbackClick hereA computer with 64K of RAM, and four 18 MB hard drives cost $9,329.00, An additional 18 MB hard drive costs $4, The 18 MB hard drive is about 6 inches wide, 4 inches high, and 12 inches in length, weighing about 10 pounds. This device would hold approximately five average size MP3’s.
21 ActivityConversionsFind speed, HD size, HD space available, RAM on school computer & home computer
22 Digital Communication Digital info transmits over distances without the quality becoming degraded.Modem converts bits for travel over media
23 Data Transfer Rates kbps or Mbps Download times are theoretical Depends on connection quality, overhead, etc.How long to download an 100 5MB pictures through your Comcast 25Mbps connection?According to calculator, 3 minutes and 4 secondsManually, you’d have to convert to bits first and then multiplyOld analog modems are 56kbps.
24 Video- Bits & BytesVideo LinkNot available on web
25 Other Computer Measurements Screen ResolutionMeasured in pixels1280 x 1024 (H x V)CPUMeasured in Hz & GHzHow fast is cycles or refreshesA 3GHz CPU executes 3,000,000,000 cycles per second
26 Lab 1.3.3Determining the Screen Resolution of a Monitor
27 Review The basic measurement of a CPU is what? HertzThe basic measurement of data is what?BitHow many possible values can a binary digit have?2Data transfer speed is usually measured in what?kbps and Mbps
28 Computer Systems Two types: Each has advantages & disadvantages Pre-assembledCustom builtEach has advantages & disadvantages
29 Pre-assembled Computers Advantages:Lower costGood for most applicationsNo wait for assemblyTypical for basic consumersDisadvantages:Often lack the performance level that can be obtained from custom built computers
30 Custom Built Computers Advantages:You can specify exact components you needGenerally support higher performance applications such as graphics, gaming, and server applicationsDisadvantages:Generally more costly than preassembled PCLonger wait for assembly
31 What Do You Consider Important? MotherboardProcessorRAMStorageAdapter CardsCase & Power
32 Motherboard Large circuit board Connects electronics Allows components to attachIt moves data between componentsSlots for expansion cards, certain CPU’s fit it, type of RAM, etc.
33 Processor CPU What’s the path data moves on called? Decide 1st Speed measured in MHz, GHzFaster= more heat & consume more powerProcesses all dataWhat’s the path data moves on called?Bus
34 RAM Stores data while being processed by the CPU All programs run from RAM2nd most important factorMore RAM= better multitasking
35 Storage What happens to RAM when no power? Hard drives are non-volatileData does not go away when no powerMagnetic storage devicesHD, Floppy, TapeOptical storage devicesRead only: CD, DVDWrite once: CD-R, DVD-RWrite many: CD-RW, DVD-RWStatic memory (flash) drivesUSB
37 Case & Power Usually sold with power supply Surge Protector UPS Case style (desktop, tower, etc)PS power requirementsSurge ProtectorRemove spikes & surges from lineUPSInternal rechargeable batteryProvides battery backup in power failureTime to save & shut down
38 Review 1 Which costs more, pre-assembled or custom PC? Which is fine for general use?Pre-assembledWhat is it called when you run more than one program at a time?MultitaskingWhat is vital for multitasking?More RAM
39 Review 2Which type of adapter card connects you to other devices in a LAN?Network cardWhat device attempts to remove spikes from the electrical line?Surge protectorWhat does a UPS do?Battery backup & gives you time to save & shut downWhat component processes all data?CPU
40 Safety & Best Practices Before you open the case…Shut power off & remove cableDO NOT OPEN MONITORS OR POWER SUPPLIES!!!!Hot-swappableRemove components without shutting downESD can cause damage to componentsStatic electricity transferWear wrist strap/grounding strapReview
41 Installing Components Hot swap or not?If not, unplug powerAttach grounding strapRemove old componentPut new one inConnect cables, close case, power upStart PC & driver loadMight be in OS; Will prompt if notGet current driver from manufacturer's web siteTestNote: In most current OS’s, system resources will be assigned automoatically
42 Problems? Make sure it’s on! Check system resources (old) Check driversUpdated?Wrong one?Reseat card/unplug & re-plugRestart computer