# Chapter 7 Accounting Periods & Methods & Depreciation Income Tax Fundamentals 2011 Gerald E. Whittenburg & Martha Altus-Buller Student Copy 2011 Cengage.

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Chapter 7 Accounting Periods & Methods & Depreciation Income Tax Fundamentals 2011 Gerald E. Whittenburg & Martha Altus-Buller Student Copy 2011 Cengage Learning

Accounting Periods  Partnerships/S-Corporations may elect to adopt a different fiscal tax year from the one prescribed on previous slide, but only °If entity can demonstrate that natural business cycle easily conforms to fiscal year other than calendar year  Such as golf course (natural cycle in Denver ends in October) Note: S-Corporations don’t pay tax as an entity 2011 Cengage Learning

Tax Year for Personal Service Corporation  A Personal Service Corporation (PSC) is a corporation with shareholder-employee(s) who provide a personal service, such as architects or dentists  Generally must adopt calendar year  However, can adopt a fiscal year if ◦ Can prove business purpose or ◦ Fiscal year results in a deferral period of less than 3 months and  Shareholders’ salaries for deferral period are proportionate to salaries received during rest of the period or  Corporation limits its salaries deduction 2011 Cengage Learning See next slide

Short Period Taxable Income (TI)  If taxpayer has a short year (other than first or last year of operation), tax is calculated based on following example: °In 2010, Flo-Mex changes from a calendar year to tax year ending 9/30. For the short period 1/1/10 – 9/30/10, Flo-Mex’ taxable income = \$20,000* Steps to calculate tax for the short period Annualize TI \$20,000 x 12/9 = 26,667 Estimated tax on annualized TI \$26,667 x 15% = 4,000 Allocate tax to short period \$ 4,000 x 9/12 = 3,000  Individual taxpayers rarely change tax years *Note: Calculations for short year TI requires special adjustments 2011 Cengage Learning

must use same method for tax & books Accounting Methods  There are three acceptable accounting methods for reporting taxable income (TI) ◦ Cash ◦ Hybrid ◦ Accrual  Must use one method consistently ◦ Make an election on your first return by filing using a particular method ◦ Must obtain permission from IRS to change accounting methods 2011 Cengage Learning

Accounting Methods (continued)  Accrual method ◦ Recognize income when earned and can be reasonably estimated ◦ Recognize deductions when incurred and can be reasonably estimated  Hybrid method ◦ An example of a hybrid taxpayer is one that utilizes cash method for receipts and disbursements, but accrual for cost of products sold 2011 Cengage Learning

Depreciation  Depreciation is a process of allocating and deducting the cost of assets over their useful lives ◦ Does not mean devaluation of asset ◦ Land is not depreciated  Maintenance vs. depreciation ◦ Maintenance expenses are incurred to keep asset in good operating order ◦ Depreciation refers to deducting part of the original cost of the asset Complete Form 4562 to reflect depreciation 2011 Cengage Learning

Personal Property Recovery Periods  With MACRS, each asset is depreciated according to an IRS-specified recovery period ◦ 3 year ADR* midpoint of 4 years or less ◦ 5 year Computers, cars and light trucks, R&D equipment, certain energy property & certain equipment ◦ 7 year Mostly business furniture & equipment and property with no ADR life *See Table 7.1 on page 7-9 for Asset Depreciation Ranges (ADR) for recovery periods for all classes of assets 2011 Cengage Learning

Calculating Depreciation for Personal Property  Depreciation is determined using IRS tables ◦ MACRS rates found in Table 7.2 on page 7-10 ◦ Rates multiplied by cost (salvage value not used in MACRS) ◦ Tables based on half-year convention  Means 1/2 year depreciation taken in year of acquisition and 1/2 year taken in final year  May elect to use tables based on straight-line instead (percentages in Table 7.3 on page 7- 11) Note: Must use either MACRS or straight-line for all property in a given class placed in service during that year 2011 Cengage Learning

Mid-Quarter Convention  Mid-quarter convention is required if taxpayer purchases 40% or more of total assets (except real estate) in the last quarter of tax year ◦ Must apply this convention to every asset purchased in the year ◦ Excludes real property and §179 property ◦ Must use special mid-quarter tables  Found at major tax service such as Commerce Clearing House (CCH) or Research Institute of America (RIA) 2011 Cengage Learning

50% Bonus Depreciation Reinstated for 2008-2010  Additional depreciation immediately available  Applies to assets with recovery period of twenty years or less plus computer software, leasehold improvements and water utility property  Amount = 50% of adjusted basis  Take 50% bonus first, then regular MACRS depreciation on remaining basis  May elect out of bonus if anticipate need for higher depreciation in future years 2011 Cengage Learning

Real Estate  Real assets depreciated based on a recovery period – 2 types of real property o 27.5 years Residential real estate o 39 years Nonresidential real estate o Real assets are depreciated using the straight- line method with a mid-month convention  Mid-month convention assumes all purchases made in middle of month  Used for real estate acquired after 1986  Rates found on Table 7.4 on page 7-13 Note: Different rates apply for real property acquired before 1981 and after 1980 but before 1987 2011 Cengage Learning

Election to Expense - §179  §179 allows immediate expensing of qualifying property ◦ For 2010, the annual amount allowed is \$500,000 ◦ Qualifying property is tangible personal property used in a business  But not real estate or property used in residential real estate rental business  §179 election to expense is limited by 2 things ◦ If cost of qualifying property placed in service in a year > \$2,000,000, then reduce §179 expense dollar for dollar  For example, if assets purchased in current year = \$2.1 million, taxpayer must reduce §179 by \$100,000. Therefore, election to expense is limited to = \$400,000 (\$500,000 – 100,000). The remaining \$1.7 million of basis is depreciated over assets’ useful lives (including bonus depreciation) if applicable. ◦ Cannot take §179 expense in excess of taxable income 2011 Cengage Learning

Election to Expense - §179  When using with regular MACRS, take §179 first, then reduce basis to calculate bonus depreciation, then reduce basis to calculate MACRS  For example ◦ In 2010, NanoPaint Inc.’s taxable income = \$1.25 million. They placed a 7-year piece of property into service costing \$842,000 – it was their only asset purchase in 2010. What is total depreciation, including election to expense? ◦ Assuming bonus depreciation will be claimed – first take \$500,000 deduction under §179, reduce basis to \$342,000, then multiply by 50% to get bonus depreciation and then remaining basis (\$171,000) by.1429 from MACRS tables  Total depreciation and Section 179 = \$695,436 (\$500,000 + 171,000 + *24,436) = \$695,436 *(remaining basis of \$171,000 x.1429) 2011 Cengage Learning

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