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Today is a great day to learn about your BRAIN!!!.

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Presentation on theme: "Today is a great day to learn about your BRAIN!!!."— Presentation transcript:

1 Today is a great day to learn about your BRAIN!!!

2 Human Brain

3 How do we know about the brain? EEG- electrical activity of brain CAT- 3D images MRI- image of radio waves/ Hydrogen atom energy PET- visual image of trace chemical activity after injection of radioactive substance

4 Electroencephalogram (EEG) Electrodes are placed on the scalp that amplify recordings of the waves of electrical activity across the brain’s surface



7 Computed Tomography (CT or CAT Scan) A series of X-ray photographs taken from different angles and combined by computer into a composite representation of the brain



10 Position Emission Tomography (PET Scan) A visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task




14 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) A technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that allow us to see structures within the brain



17 Accidents Case study analysis of victims of suffer from a brain injury, resulting in variations in normal behavior IE. Phineas Gage

18 Lesions Lesioning is the removal or destruction of part of the brain. IE. Lobotomy

19 Let’s Review Get the most important idea worksheet At your tables come up with what you think is the most important idea and then 5 supporting ideas


21 Brain Stem Medulla Pons cerebellum Reticular Formation Spinal cord


23 Connects the brain to the body Spinal reflexes occur here

24 Brainstem The oldest part of the brain Is responsible for automatic survival functions Located where the spinal cord swells and the brain just begins


26 Midbrain The MIDBRAIN is also responsible for behaviors associated with hearing and sight Pupil dilation and eyeball movement


28 PONS The PONS is responsible for helping to regulate breathing, to help with sleep and wake cycles, and controls facial expressions


30 Medulla The base of the brainstem Controls life-supporting functions like heartbeat and breathing Damage to this area can lead to death.


32 Medulla The point at which the spinal cord enters the skull is called the MEDULLA The MEDULLA controls heartbeat and breathing, blood pressure, and attention


34 Cerebellum Latin for the “little brain” Located in the rear of the brain Helps coordinate voluntary movements and balance If damaged, the person could perform basic movements but would lose fine coordination skills.




38 Reticular formation The major area of the Midbrain is the RETICULAR FORMATION The RETICULAR FORMATION extends from the spine to the thalamus, and is responsible for arousal/wakefulness and attentiveness


40 The MIDBRAIN is also responsible for behaviors associated with hearing and sight Pupil dilation and eyeball movement


42 Okay let’s teach Time to move Shake hands with 4 different people. Next touch 6 different walls Stop await instructions

43 Partner Up Get a simile summary for the group of two You may pick any part of the hindbrain and make up a simile Have fun with this!

44 Welcome to the Limbic System

45 Limbic System A ring of structures around the thalamus; at the border of the brainstem and cerebral cortex Helps regulate memory, aggression, fear, hunger, and thirst Includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala


47 Hypothalamus Located directly under the front of the thalamus Regulates eating, drinking, body temperature, and the fight or flight reactions to stress Plays a role in emotions, pleasure, and sexual function



50 Pituitary Gland Master gland Part of the endocrine system Regulates all glands within the body

51 Hippocampus Wraps around the back of the thalamus Plays a role in processing new memories for permanent storage Looks something like a seahorse –Hippo is Greek for “horse.”


53 Amygdala Two almond shaped structures Controls emotional responses such as fear and anger



56 Thalamus Sits atop the brainstem The brain’s sensory switchboard -- directs messages to the sensory receiving areas in the cortex Thalamus is Greek for “inner chamber.”

57 Cerebrum / Cerebral Cortex


59 Cerebrum Longest part of brain Two hemispheres Responsible for voluntary movement, speech, emotion, memory intelligence and memory processing

60 Cerebral Cortex The body’s ultimate control and information processing center Covers the brain’s lower level structures Contains an estimated 30 billion nerve cells Divided into four lobes



63 Frontal Lobes The portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead Is involved in making plans and judgments


65 Occipital Lobe The primary visual processing area Located in the back of the head



68 Parietal Lobes Regions available for general processing, including mathematical reasoning Designated as the association lobes Behind the frontal lobes Processes taste, smell, and feeling Motion – motor cortex


70 Temporal Lobes Includes the auditory cortex where sound information is processed Memories are processed and stored here Located roughly above the ears

71 Motor Cortex Area at the rear of the frontal lobes Controls voluntary movement Different parts of the cortex control different parts of the body. The motor cortex in the left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and visa versa.



74 Somatosensory Cortex Located in the front of the parietal lobes Registers and processes body senses Soma is Greek for “body.”



77 Hemispheric Differences Module 8: The Brain

78 Hemispheric Differences “Left-brained” and “right-brained” debunked Brain is divided into two hemispheres but works as a single entity. Both sides continually communicate via the corpus callous, except in those with split brains.

79 Hemispheric Differences: Language and Spatial Abilities Module 8: The Brain

80 The Brain’s Left Hemisphere For most people, language functions are in the left hemisphere. For a small percentage of people, language functions are in the right hemisphere.

81 Broca’s Area Located in the frontal lobe and usually in the left hemisphere Responsible for the muscle movements of speech If damaged the person can form the ideas but cannot express them as speech

82 PET Scan of Broca’s Area


84 Wernicke’s Area Located in the temporal lobe Involved in language comprehension and expression; our ability to understand what is said to us Usually in the left temporal lobe


86 PET Scan of Wernicke’s Area

87 The Brain’s Right Hemisphere Houses the brain’s spatial abilities Our spatial ability allows us to perceive or organize things in a given space, judge distance, etc. Helps in making connections between words

88 Brain Plasticity Module 8: The Brain

89 Plasticity The ability of the brain tissue to take on new functions Greatest in childhood Important if parts of the brain are damaged or destroyed


91 The End

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