2 Natural ResourcesNatural resources – materials God has provided for our use
3 Energy ResourcesRenewable resources – resources that can be replaced by natural means in a relatively short amount of timeNonrenewable resources – resources that cannot be easily replaced
4 Energy Resources – Nonrenewable - Fossil Fuels Fossil fuels – made from the remains of plants and animals that are buried quicklyThree examples of fossil fuels that provide most of the energy we usePetroleumNatural GasCoal
5 Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Petroleum Petroleum – the liquid form of fossil fuelPrudhoe Bay Field – the largest known oil field and one of the biggest oil finds in the U.S.A.Crude oil – oil pumped from wellsRefinery – a factory that separates crude oil into different productsPetrochemicals – chemicals produced from oilDisadvantages of petroleumThe use of crude oil products can cause pollution.Oil spills can occur at oil wells and during transportation.
6 Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Natural Gas Natural gas – found in a gaseous state, close to deposits of oilMuch cleaner to burn than oil because it does not contain sulfurNatural gas does not have an odor, color or taste
7 Energy Resources – Fossil Fuels – Coal Coal – made from plant material that is quickly buriedGrades of coalAnthracite – best and cleanest grade of coalBituminous – most common type of coalLignite – must be dried out before it can be burnedDisadvantages of burning coalProduces soot and sulfur gases
8 Energy Resources –Nonrenewable - Nuclear Energy Does not use a fossil fuel, but depends on a nonrenewable resource (mineral) called uraniumUranium is used in nuclear reactors to produce electricity and powerThe nuclear plant in Chernobyl suffered a reactor meltdown and spread pollution for hundreds of miles.Problems of nuclear energyThe storage of nuclear energyThe used fuel needs special containment and burial to keep it from harming the environment
9 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy Renewable resources – sources of energy that can be replaced by natural means
10 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Hydroelectric Energy Before it was used to power electricity, water powered wheels for mills that ground grainReservoirs – holding areas that help control the flow of waterHydroelectric energy – produced as water flows from the reservoirs and turns turbines. The turning of the turbines generates electricity.Advantages of hydroelectric energyReservoirs serve as recreational lakesReservoirs provide water for irrigationDisadvantages of hydroelectric energyReservoirs require large flooded land areasReservoirs require a dam be built across a major river
11 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Hydroelectric Energy Bible IntegrationSome resources are renewable. Christians need to be renewed daily through Bible study, prayer, and dependence on the Holy Spirit.
12 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Geothermal Energy Geothermal energy – uses heat from the earth to produce steam; no fuel is consumedAdvantages of geothermal energyGeothermal energy plants are fairly inexpensive to build and operateGeothermal energy plants do not produce air pollution or radioactive hazardsDisadvantages of geothermal energyOnce heat is produced, water pollutants must be disposed of properlyGeothermal energy plants must be close to areas of hot magma
13 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Wind Energy Windmills have long been used to turn wheels to grind grain.Wind energy – air movements that generate electrical energyAdvantages of wind energyWindmills do not cause pollutionWindmills require very little maintenanceDisadvantages of wind energyWindmills require a steady windThe energy produced from a windmill cannot be storedWindmills take up a lot of space (require large land areas)
14 Energy Resources – Renewable Energy – Solar Energy Solar energy – using the Sun’s energy to power and heat thingsHigh temperatures produce the steam needed to turn a turbine.Solar field – a solar collection areaAdvantages of solar energyA solar field does not produce pollutionA solar field uses little waterDisadvantages of solar energyThe solar collection cells are expensiveA large amount of land is requiredSolar power collection cannot work after sunset
15 Other Resources – Minerals Mineral – a solid substance found naturally in Earth’s surface; has never been a living organismVeins – concentrated areas of specific mineralsOres – materials with usable amounts of metal in themSmelting – the process used to separate metal from other materials; heating metal to purify it
16 Other Resources – Minerals – Precious Metals Precious metals – rare metalsGoldMalleable – soft and shapeableUses – coins, jewelry, dentistry, glassmaking, medicineSilverMetal that is easily scratched and tarnishedUses – money, jewelry, electrical parts, ink, glass, mirrors, medicines, making and processing photographic film
17 Other Resources – Minerals – Other Metals CopperOne of copper’s greatest values is that it is a good conductor of electricityUses – money, wiring, and plumbingIronUses – tools, weapons, pans, paints, appliances, steelMagnets are attracted to this type of metalAluminumUses – foil, cars, airplanes, soda cansMost abundant metal in earth
18 Other Resources – Soil – Conservation Farmers have learned to rotate crops to help maintain soil fertility. Some may plant corn one year and beans the next year. If farmers plant the same crop year after year, the soil may become unproductive.Fallow – a period of rest for a field to replenish the nutrients in the soilBible Integration – God established the seventh day as a day of rest and worship.Ground cover – a low-growing crop that prevents soil erosion in unused fieldsContour plowing – a method used to prevent crops and soil from washing away
19 Other Resources – Soil – Modern Farms Large farms sometimes use modern technology such as satellites and the Global Positioning System (GPS).The GPS allows farmers to irrigate and fertilize only the areas of the field that need it, rather than the whole field.
20 Other Resources – Water Three fourths (3/4) of the earth’s surface is covered by water.Hydrosphere – all of Earth’s waterWater cycle – the path water takes as it travels from land to sky and back to land
21 Other Resources – Water CondensationPrecipitationTranspiration – water is released by plants as they carry on photosynthesisEvaporationSurface WaterOceanGround Water
22 Other Resources – Water – Oceans Oceans contain most of Earth’s water.Oceans are a key factor in providing fresh water for us.Saline – salty; oceans are salty due to the dissolved minerals and salts that are left behindDesalination facilities – facilities that are able to remove the salts and other minerals from ocean waterOceans play a key role in the carbon dioxide-oxygen cycle.Phytoplankton – tiny ocean plants that carry on photosynthesisOceans influence the climates around the world.
23 Other Resources – Water – Oceans Biblical IntegrationGenesis 1:9 – “And God said, ‘let the waters under the heavens be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.’ And it was so.”God the Father has provided for man’s physical well- being by supplying shelter, food, and water. He has provided for man’s spiritual well-being through Christ’s death on the cross.
24 Other Resources – Water – Fresh Water Only a small part of Earth’s water is fresh water, and most of that water is frozen.Ground water – rainwater stored beneath the surface of the earthAquifers – layers of sand, gravel, or bedrock that hold and move ground waterDrawdown – occurs when a lot of water is drawn from a well and the water level fallsBiblical IntegrationGenesis 16 contains the first Bible reference to a well. The Lord provided this well to sustain Hagar. Hagar named the well Beeriahairoi, a name that reminded her that God lives and sees.
25 Other Resources – Water – Atmosphere A small amount of Earth’s water is held as water vapor in the atmosphere.Humidity – water vapor in the air
26 Other Resources – Water – Frozen Water Seventy percent (70%) of the world’s fresh water is in Antarctica (Earth’s southernmost continent)Ice sheet – huge expanse of iceIce shelf – an ice sheet that floats on waterIcebergs – independently floating pieces of glaciers, ice sheets or ice shelvesSea ice – frozen ocean waterThe geographic North Pole is located in the middle of the Arctic Ocean. Therefore, it is on ice, not land.
27 Preserving Our Resources Things you can do to help conserve the resourcesReduce the amount of resources you use.Reuse materials that would sometimes get thrown away.Recycle resources and remake them into other products.