2 The Sounds of Language Phonetics: The general study of the characteristics of speech sounds. It is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with the production, physical nature, and perception of speech sounds.Articulatory phoneticsStudy of how speech sounds are made (articulated).Acoustic phoneticsDeals with the physical properties of speech as sound waves.Auditory phonetics (perceptual phonetics)The study of the perception of speech sounds by the ear.
3 Introduction Phonetic alphabet Focus A standardized set of symbols that represent sounds so that EACH sound is represented by a single SYMBOLE. IPA is the standardized system.FocusHow these symbols are used to represent both consonants and vowel sounds of English words and what physical aspects of human vocal tract are involved in the production of those sounds.
4 IntroductionIPAIt stands for the International Phonetic Alphabet.[ ]The symbols are enclosed in brackets [ ] to indicate that the transcription is phonetic and does not represent the spelling system of a particular language.
5 The Sounds of Language Voiced Sounds Voiceless Sounds Production processVocal cords are drawn together.Air from the lungs repeatedly pushes them as it passes through.Result: a vibration effect.Examples: (V, Z, D, M, … ).Voiceless SoundsVocal cords are spread apart.Air from the lungs passes between them unobstructed.Result: no vibrationExamples: (F, S, T, K, … ).
7 The Sounds of Language Place of Articulation Each point at which the air stream can be modified to produce a different sound is called Place of Articulation.Bilabial, Labiodental, Dental, Alveolar, Palatal, Velar, Glottal.
9 Place of Articulation Bilabials: The articulators are the two lips. [b] [m] [p]
10 Place of Articulation Labiodentals The lower lip is the active articulator and the upper teeth are the passive articulator.[f] and [v].
11 Place of Articulation Dentals: Dental sounds involve the upper teeth as the passive articulator. The active articulator may be either the tongue tip or (usually) the tongue blade.[θ] Theta and [ð] eth.
12 Place of Articulation Alveolars Alveolar sounds involve the alveolar ridge as the passive articulator. The active articulator may be either the tongue blade or (usually) the tongue tip.[t], [d], [n], [s], [z], [l].
13 Place of Articulation Palatals The active articulator is the tongue body and the passive articulator is the hard palate.Show; Treasure; Chin; Judge; andYet (j) (palatal glide)
14 Place of Articulation Velars The active articulator is the tongue body and the passive articulator is the soft palate.[k], [g], and [-ing].The glide heard word-initiallyin WET is called aLabiovelar.
15 Place of ArticulationGlottal sounds are made in the larynx. For the glottal stop, the vocal cords close momentarily and cut off all airflow through the vocal tract.English: [h]