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The Industrial Revolution

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Presentation on theme: "The Industrial Revolution"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Industrial Revolution
is called a revolution because it changed society rapidly and significantly. brought a shift from agriculture to modern industry.

2 The effects were . . . economic activities changed from agriculture to manufacturing production shifted from the home to factories large populations moved to the cities

3 One Hundred Fifty Years!
1850 Farming Railroad (early) Barges (horse drawn) Water power Candles and oil lamps Factories Human brain Pony Express 2000 Service economy Jet aircraft Personal automobiles Nuclear power Universal electrification Automated factories Ubiquitous computers Internet & WWW

4 10 Most Significant Inventors of the 19th Century
1. Thomas Edison Thomas Edison and his workshop patented 1,093 inventions. Included in this were the phonograph, the incandescent light bulb, and the motion picture. He was the most famous inventor of his time and his inventions had a huge impact on America's growth and history. 2. Samuel F. B. Morse Samuel Morse invented the telegraph which greatly increased the ability of information to move from one location to another. Along with the creation of the telegraph, he invented morse code which is still learned and used today. 3. Alexander Graham Bell Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in This invention allowed communication to extend to individuals. Before the telephone businesses had to rely on the telegraph. 4. Elias Howe/Isaac Singer Elias Hower and Isaac Singer both were involved in the invention of the sewing machine. This revolutionized the garment industry and made the Singer corporation one of the first modern industries. 5. Cyrus McCormick Cyrus McCormick invented the mechanical reaper which made the harvesting of grain more efficient and faster. This helped farmers have more time to devote to other chores. 6. George Eastman George Eastman invented the Kodak camera. This inexpensive box camera allowed individual to take black and white pictures to preserve their memories and historical events. 7. Charles Goodyear Charles Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber. This technique allowed rubber to have many more uses due to its ability to stand up to bad weather. Interestingly, many believe the technique was found by mistake. Rubber became important in industry as it could withstand large amounts of pressure. 8. Nikola Tesla Nikola Tesla invented many important items including fluorescent lighting and the alternating current (AC) electrical power system. He also is credited with inventing the radio. The Tesla Coil is used in many items today including the modern radio and television. 9. George Westinghouse George Westinghouse held the patent to many important inventions. Two of his most important inventions were the transformer which allowed electricity to be sent over long distances and the air brake. The latter invention allowed conductors to have the ability to stop a train. Previous to the invention, each car had its own brakeman who manually put on the brakes for that car. 10. Dr. Richard Gatling Dr. Richard Gatling invented a rudimentary machine gun that was used to a limited degree by the Union in the Civil War. However, they were used extensively in the Spanish-American War.

5 Inventions Patent- is a license granted by a government for a new invention giving an inventor exclusive rights to make or sell an invention The number of inventions registered with the US Patent Office: ,596 ,027 ,921 ,000+ ; Averaging 60 patents a day

6 The Invention of the Telegraph- Better Communication
numerous people experimented with ways to communicate over distances numerous scientists experimented with electricity: Ampere, Volta, Gauss and others 1753: Scottish magazine suggests a system of insulated wires, one for each letter! 1825: Pavel Ludovich Schilling: wire needles 1833 Gauss, Weber: galvanometer telegraph 1837: Wheatstone, chronometric telegraph

7 Samuel F. B. Morse( ) returning (by ship) from Europe in 1832, Samuel F. B. Morse hears about Ampere’s experiments with electricity: “If this be so, and the presence of electricity can be made visible in any desired part of the circuit, I see no reason why intelligence might not be instantaneously transmitted by electricity to any distance.”

8 Morse’s Telegraph

9 The Atlantic Cable Established to carry instantaneous communications across the oceans for the first time. Although seen as a landmark event by society, it was a technical failure, remaining in service only a few weeks in 1858. Later cables laid in 1866 were completely successful and compare to the landing of men on the moon a century later.

10 Inventors and Inventions
Alexander Graham Bell ( ) Patented the telephone (1876)

11 The Telephone Telephono - Greek words tele for “far” phono for “sound”
“an instrument for the transmission of articulate speech by the electric current” - (definition of telephone from Bell’s 1876 patent application) “As to Bell’s talking telegraph, it only creates interest in scientific circles its commercial values will be limited “ (Elisha Gray, telephone inventor runner-up, June 1876)

12 A Brief History Two patents were filed on same day (February 14, 1876) by Alexander Bell, and Elisha Gray (Bell beat him by two hours). It would turn out to be the most valuable patent ever issued. The immortal words: “Mr. Watson -- come here -- I want to see you” were yelled on March 10, 1876, after many years of frustration, and after the patent application

13 Simultaneous Invention ?
Bell’s drawing of the acid transmitter, March 9, 1876 Gray’s version, Feb. 11

14 Almost “Ma Gray” Gray could have patented telephone earlier, but he (and his colleagues, patent attorney and investors) could not see how it could be used for anything more than a toy. He thought the multiplexing telegraph was more important. Bell ignored his investors. He was convinced that voice transmission was the future “the day is coming when telegraph wire will be laid on to houses just like water and gas - and friends converse with each other without leaving home”

15 Bell’s Invention Models of the first electric telephone liquid transmitter (left) and tuned-reed receiver (right)

16 First working telephone

17 Commercial magneto phone (1877) Transmission and reception in same instrument


19 Inventors and Inventions
Thomas Alva Edison ( )

20 Edison’s Inventions Incandescent light bulb (1879)

21 Edison’s Inventions Phonograph (1877)

22 Edison’s Inventions The Ediphone or Dictaphone

23 Edison’s Inventions Motion picture camera

24 Edison’s Inventions Mimeograph with electric pen

25 Inventors and Inventions
With financial backing of J. P. Morgan, Edison opened a power station in New York— Edison General Electric Company (1882)

26 Inventors and Inventions
Edison spent the last ten years of his life working on a device that he hoped would enable the living to communicate with the dead. Inventions of the last half of the 1800s revolutionized American lifestyles.

27 First in Flight- Wright Brothers 1903
At Kitty Hawk, NC on December 17, 1903 the first “flying machine” took flight. Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright, two bicycle repair mechanics from Ohio, invented a plane powered by a small gas engine.

28 Henry Ford and the Assembly Line 1913
It was Henry Ford who made the Automobile part of everyday American life By creating a moving assembly line it greatly reduced the time needed to build a car and therefore reduced the cost to make and buy one. The assembly line allowed for the mass production of automobiles

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