Presentation on theme: "The British Raj HIST 1004 3/11/13. Imperial Japan Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922): Japan must define a sphere of influence including Korea, Manchuria, and."— Presentation transcript:
Imperial Japan Yamagata Aritomo (1838-1922): Japan must define a sphere of influence including Korea, Manchuria, and parts of China. Vigorous military industrialization. 1894: Sino-Japanese War: Japan forces China to leave Korea and cede Taiwan and the Liadong Peninsula. 1900: Boxer Rebellion: Anti-foreign riots in China. Japan fights alongside Western powers to put down rebellion.
Russo-Japanese War 1905: Russo-Japanese War: Fight over Manchuria Japan defeats Russia and establishes a protectorate over Korea. Humiliating defeat for Russia, cannot keep up with other colonial powers. Tremendous victory for Japan, only fifty years after engaging the outside world. 1910: Japan annexes Korea Japan enters the club of colonial powers.
The British East India Company (EIC) and Bengal 1612: Sir Thomas Roe negotiates commercial treaty with Mughal Emperor Jahangir 1691: Treaty with the nawab (prince) of Bengal establishes a fortified outpost at Calcutta. 1756: A new nawab attacks Calcutta, imprisons men from the EIC in “the Black Hole of Calcutta” Robert Clive overthrows the nawab. 1765: Mughal emperor forced to acknowledge the EIC’s right to rule Bengal.
The Slow Decline of the Mughals Destabilization after collapse of Safavids. 1739: Nadir Shah, warlord who seized power in Iran and Afghanistan, raids Mughal territory. Carries off “peacock throne” and Koh-i Nur diamond, symbols of Mughal kingship. Continued raids from Afghanistan and European expansion encourages various regions to break off.
The Seven Years War (1756-1763) and South India Carnatic Wars (1746-1763) Battles between rival independent Indian rulers. Alliances with France and Britain brought European powers into the conflict. Robert Clive uses forces from Madras to support a pro-British nawab. Pushes French traders out of southern India.
European Politics and India French Revolution restricts France’s colonial endeavors. Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt (1798-1801) Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815) and the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Also allowed Britain to take Dutch colonies.
EIC and the South and Bombay 1818: EIC annexed western territories to build Bombay Presidency Some provinces conquered outright. Others left under pro-British local princes.
Company Men Expansion of British power was conducted by chartered companies (the British East India Company), not the British state itself. The line between the two was often blurry. Representatives of the EIC would bargain (and fight) with local rulers for rights to build trading posts. Trading posts were defended by private militias.
Sepoys Revolts against British rule Were regular in early 19 th century Biggest concern was loyalty of sepoys. Sepoys – Indian soldiers working for British Sepoys outnumbered British troops 200,000 to 38,000 in 1857.
Sepoy Mutiny/Revolt (1857) Growing resentment over ethnic and regional competition, requirements to fight overseas, and new technologies. Enfield rifle: soldiers must tear cartridge open with teeth, but bullets are (rumored to be) greased with animal fat. Muslims worried about pig fat, Hindus worried about beef fat. Neither is true but rumors spread quickly. Reflects concern over Britain’s disruption of society. So do rumors of Sepoy violence.
Sepoy Mutiny Support for last Mughal Emperor (Bahadur Shah Zafar) and Maratha Emperor (Nana Sahib) Revolt put down with support of British army Leads to questions about EIC rule
Violence of Sepoy Mutiny Sieges and ambushes of British military stations. Often home of civilian populations as well. Women and children killed. British response includes mass executions (blowing from the guns). Unofficial lynchings.
Revolt, Mutiny, or… Today the Sepoy Mutiny is remembered in India as India’s First War of Independence. Why does the name matter?
Government of India Act 1858 Because British government had to save EIC… The EIC is dissolved and India formally becomes a part of the British Empire. New centralized government, last traces of Mughal rule eliminated. Governor-General in Delhi acts as Viceroy Queen Victoria guarantees equal rights of all Indians 1877: Empress of India
The British Raj British Raj: British reign over India By 1818, EIC territory in India had a larger population than all of Western Europe 50 times the population of Britain’s former North American colonies Plan to remake India on a British model through administrative and social reforms, economic development, and “modernization”
British Rule and “Tradition” British must be careful to balance “Westernization” with respect for Indian culture(s). Invention of “traditions” – More power given to local princes who support the British – Hindu and Muslim religious leaders who support the British given increased power and authority – “Tradition” also used to resist British rule – British bring their own imperial traditions (durbars)
Indian Civil Service Imperial bureaucracy Held senior administrative and judicial posts 1,000 members Open to any British subject, but exams were given in England 1870: Only one Indian member, 57 by 1887 Attitude of European superiority ICS judge in Bengal
Thomas Babington Macaulay (1800- 1859) British poet, historian, and politician 1832-1833: Secretary to the Board of Control, overseeing the EIC 1834-1838: First Law Member of the Governor-General’s Council (Council of India) Promoted the development of bilingual education system in India. Pushed for education in English rather than Sanskrit or Persian (as had been the case under the EIC) “Macaulay’s Children”: Indians who adopted Western lifestyles.
Indian Nationalism After 1858, emphasis on reducing ethnic, religious, and social divisions. Pan-Indian nationalism Combine Western ideas with traditional practices Many nationalists came from growing middle class, merchants and manufacturing. Angered by obstacles put in place by British.
Barriers to Indian Nationalism Deep economic divisions – Rural: peasants – landowners – moneylenders – maharajahs (princes) – Urban: urban poor – laborers – craftsmen – merchants Language: 1,652 dialects spoken in India, 122 spoken by more than 10,000 people, 29 spoken by more than 1 million – English as language of upper class Religion: – Hinduism: division into 100s of occupational castes – Muslims: had ruled before British; ¼ of population Gender