2 Bones – An introduction The human skeleton consists of 206 bones. We are actually born with more bones (about 300), but many fuse together as a child grows up. These bones support your body and allow you to move.The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. Your nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone.
5 The Axial & Appendicular Skeleton The skeleton is split into these 2 categories:Axial Skeleton – Skull, vertebral column and ribcageAppendicular Skeleton – Limbs, wings and pelvisCOMPLETE WORKSHEET 1 C
6 The Vertebral Column Yes Is there movement? Very limited movement to create a stable structure for the organs found inside the ribcage2 lumbar vertebrae are moveable, 3 are fused, therefore no movementFused, therefore no movement
7 ANSWER THESE QUESTIONS How many bones are there in the human body?What is the longest bone in the body?Where in the body is the smallest bone?Your nose and ears aren’t made of bone but what other substance?The skeleton is defined into two categories, what are they?How many sections make up the vertebral column?206femurthe earcartilageaxial & appendicular5
8 Joints What is a joint? What are the types of joint? A place where two or more bones meet3GJpr8&feature=PlayList&p=1D1576CEF4196B76&index=5What are the types of joint?There are 3 types of joint:Freely Moveable / SynovialSlightly Moveable / CartilaginousImmoveable / Fixed
9 There are 6 types of freely moveable or synovial joints joints in which we need to know 3 of them: BALL AND SOCKET JOINTSHINGE JOINTSPIVOT JOINTCONDYLOID- AS IN WRISTGLIDING- AS IN ANKLE AND HANDSADDLE- AS IN THUMB
11 Types of JointMovementExample of JointFixed joints (Fibrous)No movementCraniumSacrumSlightly moveable joints (cartilaginous)Limited movementVertebral column(thoracic vertebrae)Carpals / TarsalsSynovial joint / freely movableFree movementBall and socketHingeSlidingSaddlePivot
12 ActivityWrite down 5 sports actions and beside each write down the main parts of the body that Move, the bones and the type of joint and joint action and movement possible for that action E.g. Snooker. Cueing the white ball. Right arm humerus, ulna, radius, carpal, metacarpal, phalanges. Elbow, synovial, hinge lots of movement
13 Function of the Skeleton – worksheet 1e Your skeleton has many different functions to enable you to live and survive. These include:ProtectionMovementShapeMuscle/organ attachmentBlood cell productionbone growth
14 Protection – Many of the internal organs in your body are protected by bone. The flat type bones of your body function in this way (sternum, pelvis, cranium etc.)Movement – Your body is able to move because of the co-operation between its muscles and bones. The muscles are attached to the bones of the skeleton, creating a lever and joints system that allows the body to move.Shape – Your skeleton provides the framework to give your body its shape. Without it, you would look like a blob of jelly.
15 Muscle/organ – Your body provides a support system to attach muscles, organs, arteries, veins etc. Blood cell production – Bone also produces blood cells. This occurs in the marrow of the bone that is found in the epiphysis (end) and diaphysis (shaft) of all long bones.Bone growth – As we discovered earlier bone has the ability to be broken down and reformed. This is called ossification.
17 Bone GrowthBones start off as cartilage as a fetus. As the fetus develops, mineral are laid down and the cartilage becomes harder and less flexible.This process is called ‘ossification’ and can continue until you are 30 (although it usually stops between 18-21)Bone is continually being broken down and replaced; this process is done by 2 different cells:Osteoclasts break down old bone and clean the bone environment.Osteoblasts are bone forming cells that help to develop new bone throughout life.These will replace about 10% of bone every year; this means that no matter how old we are our skeleton is no older than 10 years old.
19 Structure of a Long Bone Epiphysis – Ends of the bone.Diaphysis – Long shaft of the bone.Articular cartilage – thin layer of blueish cartilage covering each end of the bone.Periosteum – thin outer layer of the bone. It contains nerves and blood vessels that feed the bone.Compact bone – This is hard and resistant to bending.Spongy bone – this lies in layers within the compact bone. It has a honeycomb appearance and gives bones their elastic strength.Medullary cavity – the hollow space down the middle of the compact bone and contains bone marrow. Bone marrow produces blood cells and store fat.
20 Types of Bone – worksheet 1f Example found in bodyExample of functionShort bonesCarpalsMetatarsalsSmall movementLong bonesFemurHumerusLarge movementCell productionIrregular bonesVertebraeProtectionSupportFlat or plate bonesPelvic girdleCraniumAttachment of muscleSesamoid bonesPatellaUnder 1st metatarsal in the footPrevention of hyper-extension of the femur.Protection of the tendon and increase movement of the joint.
21 HOW DO WE CLASSIFY BONES ? Bones are classified according to their function.(Protection) FLAT BONES(Protection) IRREGULAR BONES(Levers) LONG BONES(Small movements)SHORT BONES
29 Movement – worksheet 1g Movement Term Description of movement AbductionThe limb moves away from the mid-line of the bodyAdductionThe limb moves closer to the mid-line of the bodyRotationThe limb rotates at the joint to cause movement at the distal end.ExtensionThe joint angle of two or more bones increases, or the limb straightensFlexionThe joint angle of two or more bones decreases, which results in a bending position
30 Movement TermDescription of movementCircumductionCircumduction is a movement in which flexion, abduction, extension and adduction movements are combined in sequenceRotationMedial rotation is to turn inward. Lateral rotation is to turn outward.PronationPronation is to rotate the forearm so that the palm faces backward.SupinationSupination is to rotate the forearm so that the palm faces forward.Circumduction
31 Movement TermDescription of movementPlantar flexionthe movement which increases the angle between the foot and the legDorsiflexionthe movement which decreases the angle between the foot and the legInversionThe act of turning from outside to insideEversionThe act of turning inside outHyper ExtensionHyperextension is a straightening movement that goes beyond the normal, healthy boundaries of the joint.
46 Effects of ExerciseThe skeletal system changes due to exercise. However, the changes depend on the type of exercise that individuals may participate in. The changes can be short or long term:Short term: When you participate in exercise your body moves more rapidly which means that joints need to work more. This extra demand on the joints causes a release of synovial fluid around the joint site that helps movement occur more easily.Long term: Hyaline cartilage increases in its thickness around the joint site as exercise continues. This can help with preventing the surface of the bones from wearing away too soon.Regular participation in weight bearing exercises also helps to increase bone density, resulting in the bones becoming stronger.
47 Describing the body’s parts and position Anterior – Front of bodyPosterior – Back of bodyMidlineSuperiorSuperior – closer to headInferior – further away from headInferiorMedial – closer to midline of bodyLateral – further away from midline of the bodyLateralProximalMedialProximal – nearer point of attachment of main structure of bodyDistal – further away from point of attachment to the main structure of the bodyDistalAnteriorPosterior