Presentation on theme: "Meeting The Needs Of Students With Traumatic Brain Injury Minnesota Definition, Eligibility, Characteristics, and Resources."— Presentation transcript:
Meeting The Needs Of Students With Traumatic Brain Injury Minnesota Definition, Eligibility, Characteristics, and Resources
Introduction The frequency of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children and teens is staggering. Each year in the United States as many as one million children and youth will sustain traumatic brain injuries from motor vehicle accidents, falls, sports, and abuse. The largest group of individuals, with traumatic brain injuries are within the 15 – 24 year old age group, but the frequency is nearly as high for children and youth under 15 years of age.
Definition State Definition: Minnesota Rule 3525.1348 defines Traumatic Brain Injury as an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that may adversely affect a child’s educational performance and result in the need for special education and related services.
…Definition The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as: cognition, speech/language, memory, attention, reasoning, abstract thinking, judgment, problem-solving, sensory, perceptual and motor abilities, psychosocial behavior, physical functions, and information processing. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or brain injuries induced by birth trauma.
Two Key Factors Related to This Definition: Initially, there must be medical documentation that an ‘external physical force’ has injured the student’s brain. There are children who have brain impairments as a result of infection, cerebral vascular accidents (stroke), brain tumors, or poison. These causes may have significant educational implications; however, these children should not be considered as having a traumatic brain injury. Eligibility in other categories could be considered by the team depending on the presenting problems.
…Two Key Factors Related to This Definition: In addition, there must be evidence that this injury has caused a functional impairment that adversely affects the student’s educational performance. This evidence is determined through the educational evaluation process. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act may be used to make minor accommodations for a student with minimal brain injury.
What Happens When The Brain Is Injured/Characteristics Despite the fact that the brain is cushioned by cerebral-spinal fluid and encased in a rough, bony, and rigid skull, the brain can be easily damaged by: shaking, falls, blows, or other violent events.
…What Happens When The Brain Is Injured/Characteristics Often, many neuron cells are irreversibly destroyed; others remain alive but exist in a vulnerable state, sometimes for days or even months after an injury. Damage to the brain often results in localized injury to specific areas of the brain, injury to blood vessels that supply oxygen to the brain and regulate blood flow, and disruption to neurochemicals.
…What Happens When The Brain Is Injured/Characteristics Brain injuries in children are often diffuse, meaning that the injury can affect many areas and functions within the brain. Since areas of the brain are interconnected, damage to any part of the system can often result in cognitive, motor, sensory, emotional, and behavioral changes.
Key Facts Each child with a traumatic brain injury presents a unique profile. When there is physical trauma to the brain, the damage is often diffuse.
…Key Facts The frontal and temporal lobe areas of the brain are particularly vulnerable to injury. The child’s age at the time of injury influences the outcome. The younger the child, the more profound the effects may be. Injuries to a developing brain may result in delayed consequences. Anticipate and prepare for possible later learning problems.
Staff Qualifications/Training Currently, there is no licensure for the Traumatic Brain Injury category in the state of Minnesota. Professional competencies for TBI and a graduate certification program have been established.
…Staff Qualifications/Training Training and support in the area of TBI are available to educators and families through ongoing regional and state workshops and conferences. At special education meetings and evaluations pertaining to TBI issues, it is a requirement to have someone knowledgeable in the area of Traumatic Brain Injury in attendance.
Common Educational Needs And Adaptations Educational programming, accommodations, and modifications to curriculum, methodology, materials, and equipment are individualized to meet the unique needs of students with Traumatic Brain Injury.
…Common Educational Needs And Adaptations Evaluation results assist teams in identifying which accommodations or modifications are needed. Accommodations or modifications could include, but are not limited to: environmental changes, assistive technology, modified grading, support for transition, organizational tools/techniques, memory aids, behavior intervention plan, modified assignments/tests, alternate response methods, or instructional preview/review/re-teaching.
Traumatic Brain Injury Eligibility Criteria Refer to criteria handout. The IEP team shall determine that a student is eligible for and in need of special education and/or related services under the category of TBI if the pupil meets the following criteria: A: There is documentation by a physician of a medically verified traumatic brain injury.
…Traumatic Brain Injury Eligibility Criteria B: There is a functional impairment attributable to the TBI that adversely affects educational performance in one or more of the seven listed areas. C: The functional impairments are not primarily the result of previously existing conditions. D: Documentation of a functional impairment in one or more of the areas in Item B must, at a minimum, include one source from Group One and one source from Group Two.
Professional Resources Statewide TBI Specialist, MN Low Incidence Projects: Deb Williamson Metro ECSU 2 Pine Tree Drive, Suite 101 Arden Hills, MN 55112 Deb.Williamson@metroecsu.org 612.638.532 For resources and materials on TBI, go to : www.mnlowincidenceprojects.org www.mnlowincidenceprojects.org (Click on TBI)