Measures to Ensure the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Resources Jonathan Wu
Current Events African nations begin developing nuclear power Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa (expanding) Need cheap source of energy for power Use low enriched uranium not for weapon use Japan allows some displaced Fukushima residents to return home 3 years after nuclear accident Some nuclear power companies want start up again
Current Events China develops thorium-based nuclear power A safer, more environmental alternative to uranium First power plant to be built by 2015 Less able to be enriched to weapon grade Recent research breakthrough in Nuclear Fusion research A more reliable form of peaceful nuclear energy Replaces nuclear fission to be more environmental
Positions of Key Players and Possible Blocs European Union The EU support the peaceful uses of nuclear technology under the NPT and support the safeguarding of nuclear resources for non-violent uses P5 Nations (US, UK, France, Russia, China) The P5 nations are all allowed to possess weapon grade forms of nuclear resources, however, they are all trying to increase their non-violent forms of nuclear energy
Positions of Key Players and Possible Blocs LEDCs Many LEDC nations do not have the resources needed for nuclear proliferation, however, wish to use nuclear resources as a way to generate power and help encourage development Middle Eastern Nations A few nations have concerns with nuclear security and a few do not ratify the NPT and are thus proliferating nuclear resources for aggressive uses. However, many other Middle Eastern states are interested in the creation of a Nuclear Weapon Free Zone and developing with the aid of nuclear resources Japan Japan does not support the use of nuclear technology for any purpose whether peaceful or violent, as it has experienced great disasters from both nuclear bombings and the previous nuclear power plant leakage at Fukushima.
The question of effective actions towards the total elimination of nuclear weapons. Evonne Pei
The total global nuclear stockpile is approximately 17,300 the United States, Russia, Britain, France, China, Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea January- India and Japan reaffirmed their shared commitment to the total elimination of nuclear weapons. March- Cuba; called for total elimination of nuclear weapons Community of Latin American and Caribbean States ( CELAC) declared the region a zone of peace 2015 Deep Cuts: The U.S. and Russia negotiate a bilateral accord to cut their arsenals 80% to 1,000 total warheads each (to be implemented by 2018). All other nuclear weapons countries agree to freeze the total number of warheads in their arsenals and commit to participate in multilateral negotiations for proportionate reductions of stockpiles. Recent Events
approximately 7,700 nuclear weapons (more than enough explosive power to destroy the world) US President Barack Obama's June Berlin speech, in which he declared, ‘so long as nuclear weapons exist, we are not truly safe United States
250 nuclear weapons, including 75 intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) flight-tested a hypersonic nuclear missile delivery vehicle capable of penetrating any existing defense system. China
Iran urges elimination of “inhuman” nuclear weapons ahead of talks on its nuclear program urges all countries to sign the nuclear test ban treaty encourages the establishment of new nuclear-weapon-free zones calls on North Korea to abandon all nuclear weapons and expresses concern at its uranium enrichment and light water reactor construction The Iranian envoy further called for global disarmament and stressed that, “The total elimination of these inhuman weapons is the only absolute guarantee against their threat or use.” Iran
After ratifying the New START Treaty, the United States and Russia agree to reduce to 1,000 total warheads each by 2018. Ukraine Crisis Annexation of Crimea Russia
The CTBT bans nuclear explosions by everyone, everywhere: on the Earth's surface, in the atmosphere, underwater and underground. March: Niue ratifies the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty CTBT has been signed by 183 countries (162 have also ratified); however, it can only be enforced after it has been ratified by the 8 remaining nuclear capable countries: China, the DPRK, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan and the United States. Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty
Conclusion: “no State or international organization has the capacity to address or provide the short and long term humanitarian assistance and protection needed in case of a nuclear weapon explosion.” Northeast Asia and Middle East: declare themselves “nuclear weapon non-use zones,” Second Conference on the Humanitarian Impact of Nuclear Weapons
Establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in Africa in 2009 Many non-nuclear weapon states, including the majority of African states, will participate in the debates in Mexico. the African continent could play an important role in negotiating a ban on nuclear weapons Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones Important they can help convince states (that possess nuclear weapons) to engage from a humanitarian approach.
April 11-12, the Nuclear Non-proliferation and Disarmament Initiative will convene in Hiroshima, attended by the foreign ministers of 12 states. Upcoming
The Question of Preventing Non- state Actors from attaining nuclear weapons Hank Chau
NPT: Not enough? “Unless the world community acts decisively and with great urgency, it is more likely than not that a weapons of mass destruction will be used in a terrorist attack somewhere in the world by the end of 2013.” – Commission on Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism of the US Congress in a report in 2008. Although it is already now 2014, and the chance of nuclear weapons falling into the hands of non-state actors (ex: terrorists) is not very high, this issue still poses a massive threat to international security, as the results would be devastating to every nation state.
Nuclear Security Summit 2014 The Nuclear Security Summit 2014 was held in Hague, Netherlands on March 24 and 25, with 53 state leaders and 3 observers (UN, EU, IAEA) attending to discuss the existing and future threats of nuclear weapons.
Nuclear Security Summit 2014 The three listed goals for NSS 2014 were: 1. Reducing the amount of dangerous nuclear materials 2. Improving security on nuclear sources and its usage 3. Enhancing international cooperation in non-proliferation
United States U.S President Obama placed the issue of non-state actors obtaining nuclear weapons on a global agenda in 2009. In NSS 2014, Obama expressed (once again) his concern on terrorists obtaining nuclear weapons.
IAEA The International Atomic Energy Agency is an IGO that dedicates to the scientific research and safety usage of nuclear energy. Currently, it works with numerous member states to develop nuclear safety programs while implementing nuclear disarmament. In 2013, 146 incidents involving nuclear or radioactive material were reported to the IAEA, proving the need for more attention on nuclear regulation.
Possible Blocs or Alliances International cooperation is required to truly and effectively prevent non-state actors from obtaining nuclear weapons. Useful Links: https://www.nss2014.com/en/nss-2014/countries-and- achievements http://americanforeignpolicy.pbworks.com/w/page/12563688 /Nuclear%20Non-Proliferation%20Treaty