2Why are Trans Fats a Problem? Lipids & CVD RiskHigh Risk (mg/dl)Optimum(mg/dl)T. Chol240<180LDL-C>160<100HDL-C< 40 (M)< 50 (F)TRIG>400<1501. Doubles risk of cardio-vascular disease compared to saturated fatsIncreases LDL-cholesterolDecreases HDL-cholesterolJAMA 2001;285:
3Why are Trans Fats a Problem? 2. Causes weight gain even when consuming the same number and type of caloriesFat weight vs. lean body massMostly found in the belly (visceral fat)180# M130# F
4Why are Trans Fats a Problem? Increases risk of type II diabetesDecreases insulin sensitivity, increases blood glucose levels
5Trans Fat Is a Greater Health Risk than Saturated Fat Good (HDL) Bad (LDL)Cholesterol CholesterolTrans fatSaturated fat
6Where are Trans Fats? Naturally occurring: Less than 20% consumed in this formed2-5% of animal fat is trans fatNot considered harmfulIncluded in FDA definition
7Where are Trans Fats? Manufactured: Hydrogenated fats including liquid shortenings, margarinePastries, cookies, crackers, snack foodsFried foods (due primarily to liquid shortening)Most convenience/packaged foods with added fatBouillon, soups, gravy mix, salad dressingCandyValues derived from 2002 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15. ‡ Prerelease values derived from 2003 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16.
8Partially hydrogenated oils contain trans fat |-C=C-HydrogenationHydrogen + Vegetable Oil = Hydrogenated Vegetable OilPartially hydrogenated oils contain trans fatVS.CisTrans
9A Comparison Per tablespoon Total fat (g) Sat fat (g) Trans fat (g) Chol (mg)Butter10.87.20.3*31.1Marg (stick)112.13.04Liq marg0.40.10.2Liq Short1322.58Values derived from 2002 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 15. ‡ Prerelease values derived from 2003 USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 16.
10Why are We Using Partially Hydrogenated Fats? Used in food industry since 1911“grandfathered” onto GRAS listEnhances shelf lifeMakes liquid oils into solidsViable replacement for butter during shortagesDecreases browning during cooking, fryingCheaper than butter
11How Much Trans Fat is OK?Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommends eating “as little as possible” trans fatAmerican Heart Association rec’d less than 2.5 gm/day2.5-5% of kcal consumedIOM ON WENDESDAY RELEASED THEIR REPORT: Nutritin Standards for foods in schools: leading the way toward healthier youthStandards for other foodstrans fat free
12Where are Trans Fats in Restaurant Food? C Bell Globemedia Inc. (http://www.ctv.ca/generic/WebSpecials/transfat/index_story 1 a 1.html
13How is Trans Fat Disclosed? Trans fat data required on food labels as of Jan, 2006Food manufacturers actively switching to low trans fat alternativesTropical oilsNon-hydrogenated vegetable oilFood labels don’t tell the whole story< 500 mg trans fat is reported as “0”Look for “partially hydrogenated fat” in the ingredient list
14Most Trans Fat We Eat Is Manufactured 79% ArtificialSource:PartiallyHydrogenatedVegetableOil21% Naturally OccurringSource:Meat and Dairy ProductsSource: FDA Consumer magazine. September-October 2003 Issue. Pub No. FDA C
15Major Food Sources of Artificial Trans Fat for U.S. Adults Data Source:
16Replacing Trans Fat Is Feasible Regular vegetable oils (canola, soy, corn) that have not been hydrogenated, or newly developed trans fat-free fry oils with similar ‘fry life’Reformulated shortening and margarine with little or no trans fat. Read the labelMany food brands are now free of trans fatRegular oils or newly developed trans fat-free fry oilswith longer ‘fry life’Partially hydrogenated vegetable oilVegetable shortening and margarineCakes, crackers, pastries, cookies, pies and hamburger bunsFry oils for French fries, chicken nuggets, fish fillets, and doughnutsIMPORTANT NOTE:HOW MANY OF TRANS FAT ALTERNATIVES ARE TESTED?ARE WE CREATING A NEW GENERATION OF FATS THAT MAY CREATE RISK???? WE DON’T KNOW!!!SOME FAT ALTERNATIVES EXIST IN “NATURE”; SOME ARE MANUFACTURED FROM REARRANGING THE FAT MOLECULES INTO VERSIONS NOT READILY (OR AT ALL?) FOUND IN NATURE
17Availability of Alternatives 9 billion pounds utilized in N. America3.27 billion pounds of alternatives now readyFats available at equivalent costs“…Adequate supplies of trans fat alternatives currently that could be used in schools.”R.Reeves, President, Institute of Shortening & Edible Oils, Inc.
18Communities Taking Action Action to reduce trans fat in schools & communitiesNorth Carolina bans trans fats in all public school facilities12 school districts noted by SNA18 states with proposed legislation
19Other communities, countries are ahead of the curve Action to reduce trans fat in communitiesTiburon is known as a trans-fat free cityChicago City Council Alderman Burke proposed a mandate for Chicago restaurants to take "artificial trans fats" off their menu of ingredients. Proposed fines range from $200 to $1,000 a day.New York City Dept of Health and Mental Hygiene sent letters to 20,000 restaurateurs and 14,000 food markets and suppliers to voluntarily eliminate partially hydrogenated oils in August 2006
20Other Countries Actions to decrease use of partially hydrogenated fats Denmarkmandates that all oils and fats used in locally made or imported food must contain less than 2% industrially produced trans fatsNetherlands, Norway, FinlandEstablished a cooperative effort between government and food industries to substantially reduce use and consumption of trans fatsCanadaNov, Health Canada formed a task force to develop recommendations and strategies to reduce trans fat as much as possible; An interim report issued August, 2005; legislation will follow
21The Transition from Processed Food WillLaborFacilitiesFunds for FreshNutrition EducationResearch indicating schools aren’t culprits made out to be in weight gain…
22Hope is a fat free & powerful fuel… Piper Mattson, M.S., R.D.Nutrition Education SpecialistMontebello U.S.D.Thanks to: Bonnie Modugno, Muchmorethanfood.com; Jean Tremaine,LA Pub. Hlth. For assistance with this presentationThanks to: Bonnie Modugno, muchmorethanfood.com& Jean Tremaine,LA Pub. Hlth. for their assistance