Presentation on theme: "Section 2: Combinations of Atoms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 2: Combinations of Atoms PreviewKey IdeasMoleculesCompoundsChemical FormulasChemical EquationsBalancing a Chemical Equation by InspectionChemical BondsMixturesMaps in Action
2 Key Ideas Define compound and molecule. Interpret chemical formulas. Describe two ways that electrons form chemical bonds between atoms.Explain the differences between compounds and mixtures.
3 MoleculesElements rarely occur in pure form in Earth’s crust. They generally occur in combination with other elements.compound a substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bondsThe properties of a compound differ from the properties of the elements that make up the compound.molecule a group of atoms that are held together by chemical forcesA molecule is the smallest unit of matter that can exist by itself and retain all of a substance’s chemical properties.
4 CompoundsClick below to watch the Visual Concept.
5 H2O = 2 H (hydrogen atoms) + 1 O (oxygen atom) Chemical FormulasA chemical formula is a combination of letters and numbers that shows which elements make up a compound.A chemical formula shows the number of atoms of each element that are required to make a molecule of a compound.In a chemical formula, the subscript that appears after the symbol for an element shows the number of atoms of that element that are in a molecule. For example:H2O = 2 H (hydrogen atoms) + 1 O (oxygen atom)
6 Chemical EquationsElements and compounds often combine through chemical reactions to form new compounds.The reaction of these elements and compounds can be described in a formula called a chemical equation.Equation StructureIn a chemical equation, the reactants (to the left of the arrow) form the products (to the right of the arrow) through chemical reactions.The arrow means “gives” or “yields.”
7 Chemical Equations, continued Equation Structure, continuedIn the following equation, one molecule of methane, CH4, reacts with two molecules of oxygen, O2, to yield one molecule of carbon dioxide, CO2, and two molecules of water, H2O.CH O CO H2Omethane oxygen yields carbon waterdioxide
8 Chemical Equations, continued The diagram below shows a chemical equation.
9 Chemical Equations, continued Balanced EquationsA chemical equation must be balanced to be useful for showing the types and amounts of the products that could form from a particular set of reactants.An equation is balanced when the number of atoms of each element on the right side of the equation is equal to the number of atoms of the same element on the left side.To balance an equation, you must put numbers called coefficients in front of chemical formulas.A coefficient multiplies the subscripts in an equation.
10 Balancing a Chemical Equation by Inspection Click below to watch the Visual Concept.
11 Chemical BondsThe forces that hold together the atoms in molecules are called chemical bonds.Chemical bonds form because of the attraction between positive and negative charges.Atoms form chemical bonds by either sharing valence electrons or transferring them from one atom to another.Scientists can study interactions of atoms to predict which kinds of atoms will form chemical bonds together.
12 Chemical Bonds, continued Reading CheckIn what two ways do atoms form chemical bonds?Atoms form chemical bonds by transferring electrons or by sharing electrons.
13 Chemical Bonds, continued IonsWhen an electron is transferred from one atom to another, both atoms become charged.ion an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons and has a negative or positive chargeIonic Bondsionic bond the attractive force between oppositely charged ions, which form when electrons are transferred from one atom or molecule to anotherA compound that forms through the transfer of electrons is called an ionic compound.
14 Chemical Bonds, continued Covalent Bondscovalent bond a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electronsA compound that forms through the sharing of electrons is called a covalent compound.Polar Covalent BondsA covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons is called a polar covalent bond.
15 Chemical Bonds, continued The diagram below compares ionic bonds and covalent bonds.
16 Chemical Bonds, continued Reading CheckWhy do water molecules form from polar covalent bonds?The oxygen atom has a larger and more positively charged nucleus than the hydrogen atoms do. As a result, the oxygen nucleus pulls the electrons from the hydrogen atoms closer to it than the hydrogen nuclei pull the shared electrons from the oxygen. This unequal attraction forms a polar-covalent bond.
17 Mixturesmixture a combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combinedBecause the substances that make up a mixture keep their individual properties, a mixture can be separated into its parts by physical means.Heterogeneous MixturesMixtures in which two or more substances are not uniformly distributed are called heterogeneous mixtures.
18 Mixtures, continued Homogeneous Mixtures In chemistry, the word homogeneous means “having the same composition and properties throughout.”solution a homogeneous mixture throughout which two or more substances are uniformly dispersedLiquids, gases, and solids can all be solutions.An alloy is a solution composed of two or more metals, such as steel.
19 Maps in ActionElement Resources in the United States