Presentation on theme: "Chapter 26 Client Server Interaction Communication across a computer network requires a pair of application programs to cooperate. One application on one."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 26 Client Server Interaction Communication across a computer network requires a pair of application programs to cooperate. One application on one computer initiates communication and the other computer accepts the contact request.
Client-Server Paradigm A server is an application program that waits passively for contact a client is an application program that actively initiates communication with a server. A server application that expects communication must interact with protocol software before an external source (client) attempts to communicate(fig 26.1).(fig 26.1) – server application notifies the local protocol software that a specific type of message is expected – server application then waits for a client application to actively initiate interaction
Server Software a special-purpose, privileged program dedicated to providing one service, but can handle multiple remote clients at the same time. is invoked automatically when a system boots runs on a shared computer that has powerful hardware and sophisticated operating system waits passively for contact from any remote client accepts contact from clients, but offers a single service Eg. Telnetd, ftpd, named, httpd
Client Software An application program that becomes a client temporarily when remote access is needed. Invoked by a user, and executes for only one session Runs locally on user’s computer Actively initiates contact with server Does not require sophisticated operating system
Direction of Data Flow a client usually sends a request to a server, and the server returns a response to the client. It’s possible for the client to send one request and the server to send a response and continuous updates (eg. Weather program) It’s possible for server to export and import information (eg. File server) Hence, information can flow in either or both directions between a client and server.
Client/Server Interaction with Transport Layer Protocol Transport protocols (eg. TCP, UDP) assign each service a unique identifier. Both clients and servers specify the service identifier protocol software uses the identifier to direct each incoming request to the correct server application(fig 26.2)(fig 26.2)
TCP Port Number TCP uses a 16-bit integer known as protocol port numbers to identify services. A unique port number is assigned to each service A server specifies the port number for the service it offers. A client specifies the port number of the desired service when sending a request TCP software uses the port number in an incoming message to determine which server to receive the request. well-known port numbers
Handling Multiple Clients A concurrent (mutitasking) file server can handle multiple clients simultaneously. A separate copy (process or thread) of the server handles each request. Each new request is handle by forking a new child process while the parent process waits for new requests.
Source and Destination Ports Each client application is assigned a port number in SOURCE port field and a port number of the server in the DESTINATION port field. TCP software on the server’s machine uses the combination of client and server port numbers (as well as client and server IP addresses) to choose the correct copy of a concurrent server
TCP vs. UDP Clients and servers can use either connection-oriented (eg. TCP) or connectionless (eg. UDP) transport protocols to communicate. Some servers may support both TCP and UDP