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How a Bill becomes a Law.

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Presentation on theme: "How a Bill becomes a Law."— Presentation transcript:

1 How a Bill becomes a Law

2 Introduction of a Bill: The House
A bill is proposed to either house: House or Senate Most bills are born in the executive branch Business, labor, agriculture, and other special interest groups often draft measures as well Private Citizens Born in Standing Committees Only MEMBERS of Congress can introduce bills in the House Put in the “Hopper”

3 The First Reading The Clerk of the House numbers each bill as it is introduced Clerk gives each bill a short title and brief summary Entered into House journal Copied and distributed to members After the first reading the Speaker of the House refers the bill to the appropriate standing committee Sent to the committee with jurisdiction over the bill

4 The Bill is Assigned to Committee
There are different standing committees Majority: Chairman Minority: Ranking Member Pigeonholed: Bill dies in committee A discharge petition enables members to force a bill that has remained in committee 30 days onto the floor for consideration Committee Options: Report the bill favorably Refuse to report the bill – pigeonhole Report bill in amended (edit) form Report the bill with unfavorable recommendation Report a committee bill

5 Schedule Floor Debate Before the bill goes to the floor it must be placed on a Calendar. Union Calendar House Calendar Private Calendar Corrections Calendar Discharge Calendar Different days to debate on bills in these various calendars Rule: Rules Committee must grant a rule before most bills can in fact reach the floor Schedule the debate and how long debate can last By not granting a rule for the bill the Rules Committee can kill the bill

6 The Bill on the Floor Committee of the Whole: is a committee of the whole house to hear and report on the bill Hears the bill for the second reading Debate: Rules Committee: puts bills on the Calendar and sets up terms of debate At any time, a member may “move the previous question” Call for a vote Only 40min more to debate after that motion passes

7 Voting: 1. Voice Votes 2. Standing Vote 3. Teller Vote
4. Roll-call vote: electronic

8 Final Steps: Engrossed: The bill is printed in its final format
Third reading Final vote is taken Speaker of the House signs the bill A legislative aide then carries it to the senate and places it on the Senate President’s desk

9 The Bill goes to the Senate
Bill is given a number S for the Senate, H for the House The bill is sent to the appropriate Standing Committee It can be amended, pigeonholed, or sent to the floor Only one calendar Bills called to the floor by the majority floor leader Bills are debated and voted on in the Senate

10 Rules for Debate Debate almost unrestrained in the Senate
“two-speech rule” No Senator may speak more than twice on a give question on the same legislative day. Days can be extended Filibuster An attempt to talk a bill to death A stalling tactic, prevent Senate action on a measure Cloture Rule Vote taken 2 days after the petitions is taken to end filibuster If at least 60 vote for the potion it passes At that point, no more then 30 hours can be spend on that measure

11 Conference Committee A majority in both houses is needed to pass a bill 218 needed to control the House 60 needed to control the Senate Used when both houses pass a different version of the bill Differences must be amended The committee negotiates and compromises Once the committee agrees the compromise bill is submitted to both houses Rarely questioned

12 The President Acts 1. President may sign the bill
2. May veto, then return to the original house with the President’s objections Pass by 2/3 vote to override the veto 3. Allow to become law by not acting on it within 10 days of receiving it 4. Pocket Veto: if Congress adjourns its session within 10 days and the President does not act, the bill dies

13 The Bill becomes law If the president vetos the bill, Congress can reconsider the bill 2/3 of both houses are needed to override the President’s veto If the president signs the bill it is a law the at each citizen must follow

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