Presentation on theme: "MIGRATION & LANGUAGE: A GEOGRAPHIC INTRODUCTION. Perception and Migration Distance and direction perceptions Absolute and relative distance Absolute distance."— Presentation transcript:
Perception and Migration Distance and direction perceptions Absolute and relative distance Absolute distance can be read on a map or globe Relative distance can be changed by using an alternate route to get someplace—time factor
External and internal migration External migration US example Internal migration US examples: African-Americans of 20 th century The “sunbelt” China example
Theories about migration Ravenstein’s “laws” of migration Net migration is a fraction of gross migration between two places The majority of migration is short If move longer distances, then big-city Urban dwellers less migratory than rural Families less likely to move internationally than young adults
Theories about migration The Gravity model Loosely based on Newton “Migrant flow from one place to another is proportional to the product of their populations” Higher population = more migrant flow Lower population = less migrant flow Has its flaws, but also applications through mathematical manipulation
Catalysts of migration Economic conditions Political circumstances Armed conflict and civil war Environmental conditions Culture and tradition Technological advances Flow of information
“Push” and “Pull” Factors Push factors vs. Pull factors Scale US vs. Peru: US = diverse, flexible economy; “complex” migration patterns Peru = economics less diverse & flexible; “simple” migration patterns
Voluntary and forced migrations Luxury of choice or fear of compulsion? Distinction not always clear-cut Voluntary migration Generate a return Represents the numbers going from the source to the destination minus those returning to the source
Voluntary and forced migrations Forced migrations The Transatlantic Slave Trade
Voluntary and forced migrations Forced migrations British convicts (1788) Native Americans (1800s) Stalin’s rule in the USSR Does forced migration exist today?
Types of movement Activity space Daily routine Magnitude varies in different societies Technology has expanded daily activity spaces Three types of human movement 1. Cyclic movement 2. Periodic 3. Migratory
The Migration Process: Major modern migrations pre-1950
The Migration Process European emigration Greatest migration in recent history African forced migration Slaves & West Africa Change of cultures & ethnicity... British “indentured” workers British relocation of Asians Example of Chinese in Southeast Asia
External and Internal Migrations Internal migrations In the United States, has carried the center of population westward and southward In US, African-Americans moved northward during WW I Rural Return to South Perceived opportunities in South Eastward migration in Russia Pattern? Railroads and feeder lines; established Vladivostok Post-Soviet regime
Post-1945 External Migrations Flow of Jewish immigrants to Israel Palestine, 1900 vs. 1948 Formation of Israel Now a flashpoints
Post-1945 External Migrations German migration From Mexico to the United States Migrations to North America
Migration and Dislocation: The Refugee Problem Large population movements tend to produce major social problems World’s refugee population proportionately has grown faster than its total population In 1970, the world had about 2.9 million refugees In 2000, the United Nations High Commission for Refugees reported some 24 million people qualified as refugees
Migration and Dislocation: The Refugee Problem Uncertain dimensions Who is a refugee? UN definitions Refugees or poor & desperate? Palestinians: in Jordan & Lebanon Identifiable by at least three characteristics: 1. Move without any more tangible property than they can carry with them 2. First “step” on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat 3. Move without official documents
Migration and Dislocation: The Refugee Problem Regions of dislocation Sub-Saharan Africa North Africa and Southwest Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Europe Elsewhere
Classification and Distribution Classification of Language Language vs. dialect Between 5000 and 6000 languages A common origin? Subfamilies language groups individual languages Distribution of Language The map A proto-language?
The Major World Languages Chinese: One Language or Many?
The Major World Languages 1 st : Chinese 2 nd : English (a second language of hundreds of millions) Sub-Saharan African languages Madagascar
Reading Ravenstein A little more about the “father of migration” theory
Discussion Questions, set #1 The world’s refugee population (internal & external) is at an all-time high today. What are the factors that explain this situation? What conditions and circumstances might cause the number of dislocated people to increase even more? Is there hope for improvement?
Discussion Questions, set #2 Why is the language spoken by more people in this world than any other not the language of international trade and communication? What factors put another language in the position of being the international language of trade and communication? Can you foresee a 21 st century scenario that might alter the balance?