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Community Level Models; Participatory Research and Challenges Alexandra Varga H571.

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1 Community Level Models; Participatory Research and Challenges Alexandra Varga H571

2 Public Health Public health is “the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals.” Winslow, C.E. (1920). The untilled fields of public health. Science, 51(1306), 23-33.


4 Social Ecological Model Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2013). What Is the Clinical-Community Relationships Measurement Framework?: Clinical-Community Relationships Measures (CCRM) Atlas.. Retrieved from relationships-measures-atlas/ccrm-atlas3.html3

5 Community level interventions must address these issues to address health disparities Disparities in health status due to: Exposures Health care access Social experience/support

6 Community Level Models Strategies for a variety of settings Community: “a group of people with diverse characteristics who are linked by social ties, share common perspectives, and engage in joint action in geographical locations or settings.” a MacQueen, K.M. et al. (2001). What is community? An evidenced- based definition for participatory public health. American Journal of Public Health, 91 (12), 1929-1939.

7 Strategies for Community Level Intervention Community organization and other participatory models Diffusion of innovations theory Communications theory

8 Community Organization Seeks to expand participants sense of self interest outward Communities are helped to identify, assess, and solve a problem- mobilization More likely to succeed with community’s priorities (as opposed to external agenda)

9 3 General Types of Community Organizing TypeFocusGoal Community development process of community building develop group identity Social planning task goals and issues of resources allocation problem solving *Social actionprocess and task oriented; grassroots based; conflict oriented increase community capacity and solve problems; concrete change to social injustice (policy change)

10 6 Common Elements of Community Organization ElementDefinition EmpowermentSocial action process though which people gain confidence and skills to improve quality of life Community CapacityCharacteristics of a community that allow it to identify and address problems Participation in organizing process Engagement of community members RelevanceParticipants identify issues that are important to them Issue SelectionProblems are dissected into solvable pieces Critical ConsciousnessAwareness of social, political and economic factors contributing to social problems

11 Media Advocacy Definition: “the strategic use of mass media and community advocacy to advance environmental change or a public policy initiative” Purpose: Advocate for the goals of safe, healthy and prosperous communities; identify barriers to strategic policy implementation; and share current research through Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Media Advocacy. Designing and Implementing an Effective Tobacco Counter Marketing Campaign. Retrieved from


13 Community-Based Participatory Research Recognizes community as an unit of identity. Builds on strengths and resources within the community. Facilitates collaborative, equitable involvement of all partners in all phases of the research. Integrates knowledge and intervention for mutual benefit of all partners. Promotes a co-learning and empowering process that attends to social inequalities Addresses health from both positive and ecological perspectives. Disseminates findings and knowledge gained to all partners. Involves a long-term commitment by all partners O’Fallon, L.R., Tyson, F.L., Dearry, A. (2000). Successful models of community-based participatory research. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

14 Discussion… A few examples of CBPR… What are some challenges, issues, or gaps? What are some facilitating factors or ways to promote CBPR?

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