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1 The South and the Slavery Controversy,
Cover Slide The American Pageant Chapter 16 The South and the Slavery Controversy, Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

2 If you put a chain around the neck of a slave, the other end fastens itself around you own Ralph Waldo Emerson, 1841

3 Introduction At the dawn of the Republic when George Washington became President, slavery faced an uncertain future The idealism of the Revolution prompted some Southern leaders to talk openly about freeing their slaves---even Thomas Jefferson Others said that slavery would die because it was unprofitable ---Prices were depressed ---Lands were barren from overcropping

4 BUT ………….. Eli Whitney’s invention of the cotton gin in 1793 changed everything Cotton gin made possible wide scale cultivation of short staple cotton Cotton gradually became the dominant crop in the South, crowding out tobacco, rice and sugar ---Created an insatiable demand for labor ---Chained the slave to the cotton gin and chained the planter to the slave

5 Slaves ginning cotton Slaves ginning cotton The invention of the cotton gin and the spread of cotton agriculture throughout the American south created an enormous new demand for slave workers and changed the nature of their work. A handful of slaves could process large amounts of fiber using the revolutionary new machine, but it took armies of field workers to produce the raw cotton. (Library of Congress) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

6 The reinvigoration of southern slavery carried fateful implications for blacks and whites alike
AND it threatened the very survival of the United States as a nation

7 I. “Cotton is King!” The Cotton Kingdom (Term for the South that emphasized its dependence on a single staple product.) became a huge agricultural factory Planters, seeking quick profits, moved into the Gulf States (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama), where the soil was more fertile This meant more slaves Then bought more land and more slaves---economic spiral

8 B. Northern shippers profited from this
Transported cotton to England where they sold it for pounds sterling with which they bought manufactured goods to sell in US Britain heavily dependent on cotton to feed its textile factories (80% came from U.S.) Prosperity of both the North and South rested on slavery: After 1850, the prosperity of both the North and the South became heavily dependent upon growing, manufacturing and exporting cotton

9 C. Cotton accounted for 50% of all American exports after 1840
South produced more than half of world’s cotton --- which meant foreign nations were somewhat dependent on it Britain was leading industrial power Most important export in 1850s was cotton cloth 20% of British population got its livelihood from cotton either directly or indirectly 75% of English cotton came from US

10 D. Southern leaders were aware of England’s dependence on their cotton, and this made them feel powerful “Cotton was King” They were counting on England backing them if war ever broke out between the North and the South

11 Value of Cotton Exports As % of All US Exports

12 Slaves Using the Cotton Gin

13 Characteristics of the Antebellum South
Primarily agrarian. Economic power shifted from the “upper South” to the “lower South.” “Cotton Is King!” * > 5 million bales a year (57% of total US exports). Very slow development of industrialization. Rudimentary financial system. Inadequate transportation system.

14 II. The Planter “Aristocracy”
In the antebellum (pre-Civil War) South, the government in some ways seemed more like an oligarchy (rule by the few) as opposed to a democracy, and the “few” who ruled were the planter aristocracy

15 B. Only 1,733 families owned more than 100 slaves in 1850, and these families made up the planter aristocracy --- or “cottonocracy” Provided political and social leadership Lived in the plantation mansions you see in pictures, white painted, tall columns, sipping mint-julep, riding their purebred horses

16 Hollywood’s Version of Plantation Life
From the movie Gone with the Wind This is Tara –-- Hollywood’s Version of Plantation Life

17 C. The planter aristocrats enjoyed most of the wealth of the South
Children were educated at the finest schools (often in the North or abroad) Their money gave them leisure time to study and pursue statesmanship John C. Calhoun---Yale graduate Jefferson Davis (West Point graduate) Felt keen sense of obligation to serve the public---South produced more first class statesmen before the Civil War than did the North

18 D. But even with its good points, dominance by the aristocracy was undemocratic
Widened gap between rich and poor Hampered tax supported public education (as planters could afford to send their children to private school)

19 E. Southern elite’s favorite author: Sir Walter Scott, a British novelist who wrote Ivanhoe, a romantic vision of a feudal society Harked back to feudal times with manors and castles Ivanhoe, Rowena Sometimes had jousting tournaments Tried to preserve an type of medieval society that had already died out in Europe --- or was dying out: Mark Twain accused Scott of starting the Civil War by arousing southerners to fight for a “sham civilization”

20 Jousting tournament

21 F. Southern women were also shaped by the plantation system
The mistress of a plantation had a large household staff of mostly slaves Ordered the servants around Relationships between mistresses and slaves ran the gamut from good to awful ---Some slaves were regarded as family members ---Yet none argued for abolition and few protested when husbands and children of slaves were sold

22 Virginia Planter's Family by August Köllner, 1845
As August Köllner's 1845 painting shows, a southern woman was expected to be a loving and subservient wife to her plantation husband, but she was also expected to be a harsh mistress toward her black servants. ("Virginia Planters Family" by A. Kollner, Library of Congress) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

23 III. Slaves of the Slave System
A. The quick profits in growing cotton led to excessive cultivation or “land butchery,” slowly destroying the land and causing much of the population to move to the West and Northwest

24 B. The economic structure of the South became increasingly monopolistic
As the land wore thin, many small farmers sold their land to their more prosperous neighbors and moved to the West or Northwest Large farmers got bigger, small farmers got smaller

25 C. The plantation system was financially unstable
Temptation to overspeculate in land and slaves Many planters plunged deep into debt Slaves represented a heavy investment---perhaps $1200 apiece ---Could be fed for 10 cents a day but there were other expenses ---Slave might injure himself on purpose or otherwise or might run away ---Entire slave quarter might be wiped out by illness or lightening

26 D. South had one crop economy
Price level was at the mercy of world conditions System discouraged diversification of agriculture and industrialization Thus, the growing of cotton on large plantations was economically inefficient and agriculturally unsound

27 E. The South came to resent the fact that the North was growing rich at their expense
Northern middlemen --- bankers, agents, shippers --- took their share of the profits of the South Southerners were born and wrapped in Yankee-made blankets and swaddling, served the Yankees for their entire life, when they died they were placed in coffins held together with Yankee made nails and buried in graves dug with Yankee shovels --- the South furnished the corpse and the hole in the ground

28 F. The Cotton Kingdom was not attractive to European immigrants so the South lacked the manpower of the North In 1860, only 4.4% of the South was foreign born as compared to 18.7% of the North German and Irish immigration was discouraged, because ---The slaves had the jobs they might ordinarily have taken ---Fertile land too costly ---Ignorant of how to grow cotton G. South was the most Anglo-Saxon section of the country

29 IV. The White Majority In the South of the 1850s, only a handful of southern whites lived in the opulence of Gone with the Wind 1. Only 1,733 families owned a hundred or more slaves

30 The Southern “Belle”

31 2. Below them were the less wealthy landowners
345,000 families (1,725,000 white people) who owned less than 100 slaves Over 2/3 of these owned less than 10 slaves

32 Slave-Owning Families (1850)

33 3. Only ¼ of white Southerners owned slaves or belonged to a slaveowning family, which means that ¾ of Southern landowners owned no slaves at all

34 B. Small slaveowners made up a majority of slaveowners (although they did not own a majority of slaves) Except for owning a slave or two, their life style resembled that of small farmers in the North more than it did the Southern planter aristocracy Lived in modest farmhouses and worked side by side with their slaves

35 Slave-Owning Population (1850)

36 C. Beneath the slave owners was the great mass of whites who owned no slaves at all
By 1860, they numbered 6,120, /4 of southern landowners Pushed off the rich lands by the big planters Planted on the backcountry or mountain valley soil, which was thinner These were red necked yeoman who in no way resembled GWTW and in fact sneered at their pretensions

37 Southern Society (1850) “Slavocracy” [plantation owners]
6,000,000 The “Plain Folk” [white yeoman farmers] Black Freemen 250,000 Black Slaves 3,200,000 Total US Population --> 23,000,000 [9,250,000 in the South = 40%]

38 5. Some of the least prosperous nonslaveholding whites were scorned even by slaves as
Poor white trash (term dates back to the 1820s) Hillbillies Crackers Clay eaters* Clay eating is called geophagia and may be related to anemia (iron deficiency)

39 6. These people were said to be misshapen, but may have just been suffering from malnutrition and parasites --- especially hookworm Hookworm enters the human body through a break in the skin. Hookworm can cause anemia

40 7. All of these whites without slaves had no direct stake in the preservation of slavery, but they still defended the slave system Question: Why?????

41 Answer: The carrot on the stick: The hope of one day having the money to buy a slave or two and of parlay their holdings into riches --- American dream --- Upward mobility They also took pride in their racial superiority: Were hardly better off than some slaves and in some cases, were worse off, yet they felt good that they outranked someone and they felt racially superior

42 D. The southern mountain whites were in a special category
They lived in the valleys of the Appalachian range from Virginia to northern Georgia and Alabama under Spartan conditions Anachronistic --- retained Elizabethan speech forms and habits Independent small farmers hundreds of miles distant from the cotton kingdom and slavery Hated the haughty planters and their slaves Andrew Jackson was one of them Saw the impeding Civil War as a “rich man’s war but a poor man’s fight” When the war came, they constituted a “peninsula of unionism”

43 V. Free Blacks: Slaves without Masters
A. By 1860, there were 250,000 free blacks in the South, and their position was extremely precarious In the upper South, genesis of free black population was a small wave of emancipation inspired by the idealism of the Revolution In the deep south, many free blacks were mulattoes, usually the emancipated children of a white planter and his black mistress Throughout the South, there were free blacks who had purchased their freedom with earnings from after hours work

44 B. Many free blacks owned property and some even owned slaves
William T. Johnson, the “barber of Natchez” Johnson’s diary shows in June of 1848, he flogged two slaves and a mule William Johnson’s house in Natchez, Mississippi William Johnson’s diary

45 A barber shop, Richmond, Virginia---1861
Free blacks dominated the barber's trade in Richmond on the eve of the Civil War. As meeting places for men, barber shops supplied newspapers and political discussion. Black barbers were politically informed and prosperous. As was the custom at the time, barbers also performed medical procedures like drawing blood. (Valentine Museum, Cook Collection)

46 C. Free blacks in the South were a sort of third race --- neither black or white
They were prohibited from certain occupations They were prohibited from testifying against whites in court They were always vulnerable to being hijacked back into slavery by unscrupulous slave traders They were resented by defenders of slave system, Who feared they could become role models for slaves!!!!

47 D. Free blacks were also unpopular in the North where another 250,000 of them lived
Several states forbade their entrance, and most states denied them the right to vote Some barred them from public schools --- In 1835, New Hampshire farmers destroyed a school that enrolled 14 blacks, hitched their oxen to it and dragged it into a swamp Northern blacks were especially hated by the Irish Much of the agitation in the North against the spread of slavery into the new territories in the 1840’s and 1850’s grew out of racial prejudice and not humanitarianism Anti-black sentiment was often stronger in the North than in the South Frederick Douglass, former slave, was several times mobbed and beaten by northern rowdies

48 Free blacks had a difficult life in both the North and the South before the Civil War.

49 E. It was observed that Southerners, who were often raised by blacks, liked the blacks as individuals but despised the race; Northerners, on the other hand, often professed to like the race but disliked individual blacks

50 VI. Plantation Slavery At the bottom of the social ladder in the South of 1860 were the nearly 4,000,000 slaves 1. Legal importation of slaves ended in 1808; however, they were still being smuggled despite death penalty for slavers Several thousand were captured, but southern juries repeatedly acquitted them Only one slave trader was ever executed, and that was in New York in the second year of the Civil War

51 2. Slave population had quadrupled since the start of the country, but this was mostly due to natural reproduction Slave owners considered slaves to be investments into which they had sunk nearly $2 billion of capital by 1860 and generally treated their slaves as a valuable economic investment Slaves were the primary form of wealth in the South and were cared for as an asset is cared for by a prudent capitalist Sometimes they were spared dangerous work (roofing a house, tunnel blasting, swamp draining) and an Irish laborer was hired --- if someone is going to break a neck, let it be the Irishman and not a prime field hand

52 Scarlet and Mammie (Hollywood Again!)

53 A Real Mammie & Her Charge

54 Slaves Working in a Sugar-Boiling House, 1823

55 B. Slavery was profitable for large plantations, but it stunted the economic development of the region as a whole Cotton sucked slaves from the upper South to the lower South Breeding of slaves was not openly encouraged but it happened --- women who bore 10 children were promised freedom

56 C. Slave auctions were brutal
Human flesh being sold, sometimes with cattle and horses Families were separated, usually for economic reasons (bankruptcy) Breaking up of families was probably the greatest psychological horror of slavery Abolitionists decried it Harriet Beecher Stowe seized on the emotional power of this in her book Uncle Tom’s Cabin

57 Slave Auction Notice, 1823

58 Charleston, South Carolina---1856
Slave Auction: Charleston, South Carolina

59 The Land of the Free and the Home of the Brave by Henry Byam Martin, 1833
White southerners could not escape the fact that much of the Western world loathed their "peculiar institution." In 1833, when a Canadian sketched this Charleston slave auction, Britain abolished slavery in the West Indies. (National Archives of Canada) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

60 The Ledger of John White
Matilda Selby, 9, $ sold to Mr. Covington, St. Louis, $425.00 Brooks Selby, 19, $ Left at Home – Crazy Fred McAfee, 22, $ Sold to Pepidal, Donaldsonville, $ Howard Barnett, 25, $ Ranaway. Sold out of jail, $540.00 Harriett Barnett, 17, $ Sold to Davenport and Jones, Lafourche, $900.00

61 VII. Life Under the Lash There is no simple answer to the questions, “How did slaves live?” Conditions varied from region to region, from plantation to small farm, from master to master Slavery always meant hard work, toiling from dawn to dusk in the fields being watched constantly by a white overseer or a black “driver” Slaves had no political rights other than minimal protection from arbitrary murder or cruel punishment Some states banned the sale of a child under 10, but laws hard to enforce Slaves were forbidden to testify in court

62 Slave Accoutrements Slave Master Brands Slave muzzle

63 Slave Accoutrements Slave leg irons Slave tag, SC Slave shoes

64 Torture Mask, woodcut, 1807 Torture Mask, woodcut, 1807 The laws of southern states had long stipulated that masters could use whatever means they deemed necessary to prevent slave runaways and insolence. In the early 1800s, some planters adopted this so-called restraining mask to punish slaves. (Library of Congress) Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

65 6. Floggings were common Substitute for wage incentive program Strong willed slaves were sent to “breakers” who relied on the lash to whip them into submission However, lash marks hurt resale value and made the workers sullen For financial and humane reasons, beatings probably weren’t too common

66

67 From Frederick Douglass’s biography
After being on the farm for one week, Frederick was given a serious beating for letting an oxen team run wild. During the months to follow, he was continually whipped until he began to feel that he was "broken". On one hot August afternoon his strength failed him and he collapsed in the field. Covey kicked and beat Frederick to no avail and finally walked away in disgust. Frederick mustered the strength to get up and walk to the Auld farm, where he pleaded with his master to let him stay. Auld had little sympathy for him and sent him back to Covey. Beaten down as Frederick was, he found the strength to rebel when Covey began tying him to a post in preparation for a whipping. "At that moment – from whence came the spirit I don't know - I resolved to fight," Frederick wrote. "I seized Covey hard by the throat, and as I did so, I rose." Covey and Frederick fought for almost two hours until Covey finally gave up telling Frederick that his beating would have been less severe had he not resisted. "The truth was," said Frederick, "that he had not whipped me at all." Frederick had discovered an important truth: Men are whipped oftenist who are whipped easiest." He was lucky, legally, a slave could be killed for resisting his master. But Covey had a reputation to protect and did not want it known that he could not control a 16 year old boy.

68 B. By 1860, most slaves were concentrated in the “black belt” of the Deep South that stretched from South Carolina and Georgia into the new southwest states of Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana This is the area into which the Cotton Kingdom had spread explosively This was the frontier and the life of the slaves was harsher here than it was in the deep South

69 C. Most slaves lived on large plantations with 20 or more slaves
In some parts of the South, blacks were more than 75% of the population Family life here tended to be stable and distinctive African-American culture developed Forced separations of spouses, parents and children were more common on smaller plantations and in the upper South Slave marriage vows: “Until death or distance do you part” Most slaves were raised in stable, two parent homes Avoided marriage between first cousins, as opposed to the planter aristocracy

70 A Slave Family

71 E. African roots were visible in their religion
Heavily Christianized due to the Second Great Awakening, but molded their own religion from elements of African and Christian religions Emphasized the part of Christianity that was pertinent to their own situation, especially the captivity of the Israelites in Egypt Spirituals Tell old Pharaoh “Let my people go.” Nobody knows de trouble I’ve had Nobody know but Jesus 4. African practice of responsorial style of preaching in which congregation punctuates the minister’s remarks with assents and amens

72 The Culture of Slavery Black Christianity [Baptists or Methodists]: * more emotional worship services. * negro spirituals. “Pidgin” or Gullah languages. Nuclear family with extended kin links, where possible. Importance of music in their lives. [especially spirituals].

73 Southern Agriculture

74

75 Slaves Picking Cotton on a Mississippi Plantation

76 Slaves posing in front of their cabin on a Southern plantation.

77 VIII. The Burdens of Bondage
Slavery, the “peculiar institution,” was intolerably degrading to the victims, who were deprived of dignity and sense of responsibility that comes from independence and the right to make choices Denied an education because reading brought ideas and ideas discontent Many states passed laws forbidding instruction At the start of the Civil War, about 9/10 of the slaves were totally illiterate For slaves, the “American dream” was non-existent

78 B. Slaves devised countless ways to get back at their masters
Slowing pace of work, thus fostering the myth of black “laziness” Appropriated food and other goods that they had produced from the “big house” Sabotaged expensive equipment, thus stopping the work routine until it could be fixed Sometimes even poisoned their masters

79 Slave Resistance Refusal to work hard. Isolated acts of sabotage.
Escape via the Underground Railroad.

80 Slave Resistance “SAMBO” pattern of behavior used as a charade in front of whites [the innocent, laughing black man caricature – bulging eyes, thick lips, big smile, etc.].

81 C. Slaves pined for freedom, and some rebelled, but they were never successful
Stono Rebellion, South Carolina slaves fled toward Florida killing whites along way; did not make it.

82 2. Gabriel Prosser, 1800 Slave blacksmith in Virginia who planned a military slave revolt; recruited 150 men (or 1,000 men, depending on source) Rebellion did not materialize and Prosser and 34 others were hanged.

83 3. Denmark Vesey Vesey was a mulatto in Charleston, devised the largest revolt ever in 1822 A slave informer advised his master of the plot Vesey and 30 others publicly hanged

84 4. Nat Turner’s revolt Sixty Virginians slaughtered, mostly children and women Wave of killing slowed down revolt’s aim of capturing armory Largest slave revolt ever in the South Reprisals were swift and bloody: Over 100 slaves were killed in response; Turner was hanged Significance: Produced a wave of anxiety among southern plantation owners that resulted in harsh laws clamping down further on the slave institution

85 Nat Turner, artist unknown
No pictures of famed slave revolt leader Nat Turner are known to exist, but this nineteenth-century painting illustrates how one artist imagined the appearance of Turner and his fellow conspirators. White southerners lived in terror of scenes such as this and passed severe laws designed to prevent African Americans from ever having such meetings. (Granger Collection)

86 Slave Rebellions in the Antebellum South: Nat Turner, 1831

87 There were many lurid tales that fanned the flames of fear in white Southerners. Caption reads: "The above is intended to represent the horrid Massacre of the Whites in Florida, in December 1835, and January, February, March and April 1836, when near Four Hundred (including women and children) fell victim to the barbarity of the Negroes and Indians."

88 Southern Population

89 Slave Rebellions Throughout the Americas

90 D. Slavery left its mark on whites, too
Brutality of the whip, bloodhound, branding iron White southerners lived in a state of siege Propaganda from the North Felt they were racially superior South became backwards

91 E. Booker T. Washington said whites could not hold slaves down in the ditch without getting down there with them

92 XIX. Early Abolitionism
Because of the inhumanity of the “peculiar institution,” antislavery societies began to develop First stirrings of abolitionism came from the Quakers about the time of the Revolution There was widespread loathing of blacks, so early efforts concentrated on transporting them back to Africa The American Colonization Society founded in 1817

93 American Colonization Society
Republic of Liberia was founded on the West Coast of Africa Established by former slaves Capital is Monrovia---named after President Monroe 15,000 free blacks transported there over the next decade

94 Abolitionist Movement
1816  American Colonization Society created gradual, voluntary emancipation. British Colonization Society symbol

95 Yet, colonization appealed to many, including Abraham Lincoln
C. HOWEVER, most blacks did not wish to be transported into a strange civilization after being partially Americanized By 1860, all slaves were native born Americans with their own distinctive history and culture Yet, colonization appealed to many, including Abraham Lincoln

96 D. In the 1830’s, abolition movement got new energy and became an actual crusade
1833, Britain freed slaves in the West Indies and American abolitionists took heart Second Great Awakening gave many abolitionists religious zeal to make abolitionism a holy war

97 Anti-Slave Pamphlet

98 E. Anti-slavery crusaders
Theodore Dwight Weld had been moved by Charles Grandison Finney in New York’s Burned Over District in the 1820s Weld was aided materially by two wealthy NY merchants: Arthur and Lewis Tappan who paid Weld’s way to Lane Theological Seminary in Cincinnati, Ohio, which was presided over by … Lyman Beecher, father of Harriet Beecher Stowe, reformer Catherine Beecher, and preacher-abolitionist Henry Ward Beecher Weld was expelled from Lane in 1834 for organizing 18 day debate on slavery---he and the other “Lane Rebels” who were expelled with him fanned out across the Old Northwest and preached antislavery gospel Weld married Angelina Grimke, a southern abolitionist. Weld wrote propaganda pamphlet in 1839: American Slavery As It Is ---Powerful anti-slavery tract ---Influenced Harriet Beecher Stowe

99 Other White Abolitionists
Lewis Tappan James Birney Liberty Party. Ran for President in & 1844. Arthur Tappan

100 Anti-Slavery Alphabet

101 XX. Radical Abolitionism
On January 1, 1831, William Lloyd Garrison published the first edition of his militantly antislavery newspaper, The Liberator Garrison was Twenty six years old A spiritual child of the Second Great Awakening Emotionally high strong, child of an alcoholic father

102 Premiere issue  January 1, 1831
The Liberator Premiere issue  January 1, 1831 R2-5

103 Garrison’s opening editorial said:
I will be as harsh as truth and as uncompromising as justice I am in earnest---I will not equivocate --- I will not excuse --- I will not retreat a single inch --- and I WILL BE HEARD.

104 C. Garrison demanded "virtuous" North secede from the "wicked" South
Yet, he never explained how such an act would end southern slavery He was criticized by even some of his followers for offering no solution His detractors said he was more interested in his own righteousness than he was in ending slavery and he was never popular in the North He renounced politics and on July 4, 1854, he publicly burned a copy of the US Constitution

105 William Lloyd Garrison (1801-1879)
Said slavery & Masonry undermined republican values Called for immediate emancipation with NO compensation Said slavery was a moral, not an economic issue

106 D. Garrison inspired dedicated abolitionists like Wendell Phillips to found the American Anti-Slavery Society in Wendell Phillips . . Was an ostracized Boston patrician---his family tried to have him declared insane Was called "abolition’s golden trumpet“, because he was one of the finest orators of the 19th century Would eat no cane sugar and wear no cotton clothing Was perhaps most important abolitionist; major impact on politics during the Civil War for emancipation Followed Garrison’s views until political reason took him in new direction in 1860s

107 American Anti-Slavery Almanac, 1840 Northern antislavery propagandists indicted the southern way of life, not just slavery. These illustrations depict the South as a region of lynchings, duels, cockfights, and everyday brawls. Even northerners who opposed the abolition of slavery resolved to keep slaveholders out of the western territories. (Library of Congress)

108

109 E. Black Abolitionists 1. David Walker (1785-1830)
1829 Wrote --> Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World MESSAGE: Fight for freedom rather than wait to be set free by whites. Advocated a bloody end to white supremacy

110 FROM: Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World
Let no man of us budge one step, and let slave-holders come to beat us from our country. America is more our country, than it is the whites — we have enriched it with our blood and tears. The greatest riches in all America have arisen from our blood and tears: — and will they drive us from our property and homes, which we have earned with our blood? – David Walker

111 2. Sojourner Truth (1787-1883) or Isabella Baumfree
Freed black woman in New York Fought for emancipation & women’s rights > The Narrative of Sojourner Truth

112 3. Martin Delaney One of few blacks to seriously advocate black mass recolonization in Africa In 1859, he visited West Africa’s Niger Valley looking for a suitable location

113 And the greatest of all black abolitionists was . . . .

114 4. Frederick Douglass (1817-1895)

115 Frederick Douglass Former slave who escaped slavery at age 21
In 1841, abolitionists were stunned at an impromptu speech he gave at an antislavery meeting in Massachusetts Lectured widely for the cause despite many beatings and threats Published The North Star, his own abolitionist newspaper Wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass -- Depicted his life as a slave, his struggle to read & write & his escape to North Flexibly practical (in contrast to Garrison who was stubbornly principled)

116 Douglass looked to politics to end slavery -- Backed the Liberty party in 1840, the Free Soil Party in 1848, and the Republican party in the 1850s

117 Abolitionist Movement
Create a free slave state in Liberia, West Africa. No real anti-slavery sentiment in the North in the 1820s & 1830s. Gradualists Immediatists

118 Abolitionists eventually were forced to confront the age old question: When is evil so enormous that it must be denounced, even at the risk of precipitating bloodshed and butchery?

119 John Stuart Mill, British philosopher:
War is an ugly thing but not the ugliest of things. The decayed and degraded state of moral and patriotic feeling which thinks that nothing is worth war is much worse. The person who has nothing for which he is willing to fight, nothing which is more important than his own personal safety, is a miserable creature and has no chance of being free unless made and kept so by the exertions of better men than himself.

120 Free Soil Party Free Soil! Free Speech! Free Labor! Free Men!
“Barnburners” – discontented northern Democrats. Anti-slave members of the Liberty and Whig Parties. Opposition to the extension of slavery in the new territories!

121 XXI. The South Lashes Back
In 1820s, Southern antislavery societies outnumbered northern ones, but after 1830s , abolitionism south of the Mason Dixon line (the line dividing the North and South) was silenced Virginia legislature debated and eventually defeated various proposals for emancipation in

122 Colonel and Mrs. James A Whiteside, Son Charles & Servants
by James A. Cameron This portrait captures the patriarchy as well as the graciousness that whites associated with the ideal plantation. The slave waiter, nurse and planter's wife all appear overshadowed by the master's presence.

123 Minor Winn Gracey and Mourning Smith Gracey
by William Frye, 1851 This grand portrait of Minor Winn Gracey and his wife, Mourning Smith Gracey, of Alabama, celebrates the planter class's wealth and status in the artifacts surrounding the couple.

124 C. What silenced Southern abolitionism?
1. Nat Turner’s revolt coincided with Garrisons Liberator South sensed a northern conspiracy and called Garrison a terrorist Georgia offered $5,000 for his arrest and conviction 2. Nullification Crisis of 1832 Gave southerners haunting fears of northern federally supported abolitionist radicals inciting wholesale murder in the South Jailings, whippings, and lynchings of anti-slavery whites emerged AND

125 3. Increasing abolitionist literature that flooded southern mails
Abolitionist literature banned in the Southern mails Federal government ordered southern postmasters to destroy abolitionist materials and to arrest federal postmasters who did not comply

126 C. Pro-slavery whites responded by launching a massive defense of slavery as a positive good
Argument: Slavery was supported by the Bible (Genesis) and Aristotle (slavery existed in ancient Greece) Argument: Slavery was good for barbarous Africans who were civilized and Christianized

127 Southern Pro-Slavery Propaganda

128 Catechism for blacks: Question: Who gave you a master and a mistress?
Answer: God gave them to me? Question: Who says you must obey them? Answer: God says that I must. Question: What book tells you these things? Answer: The Bible Question: Does God love to work? Answer: Yes, God is always at work. Question: Do the angels work? Answer: Yes, they do what God tells them. Question: Do they love to work? Answer: Yes, they love to please God.

129 3. Master-slave relationships resembled those of a "family" which may have been true of some of the Old South in Virginia and Maryland Slave’s tombstone: John: A faithful servant: Kindly, and considerate: Loyal, and affectionate: The family he served Horours him in death: But, in life they gave him love: For he was one of them

130 4. George Fitzhugh was the most famous of pro-slavery apologists
Contrasted happiness of their slaves with the overworked northern wage slaves Fresh air for slaves in the South as opposed to stuffy factories for workers in the North Full employment for slaves in the South Slaves in the South were cared for in sickness and old age unlike Northern workers

131 Slavery As It Exists In America. Slavery As It Exists In England. 1851
Slavery As It Exists In America. Slavery As It Exists In England In the first scene black slaves dance and play, observed by four white men--two Southerners and two Northerners. The southern gentleman comments to the Northerner: "It is a general thing, some few exceptions, after mine have done a certain amount of labor, which they finish by 4 or 5 P.M., I allow them to enjoy themselves in any reasonable way." In the second scene, which takes place at a British textile factory. Notice the conversation between two barefoot youths: "I say Bill, I am going to run away from the Factory, and go to the Coal Mines where they have to work only 14 hours a Day instead of 17 as you do here." Behind them, an impoverished mother comments about life in the factory: "Oh Dear! what wretched Slaves, this Factory Life makes me & my children." The idea that slaves enjoyed a higher standard of living compared to industrial workers in Northern U. S. and British cities, meaning better diets and better working conditions, was commonly argued in defense of slavery. For southern apologists for slavery, the wage slavery of England and the northern states was worse than actual slavery because employers felt no responsibility for the welfare of their "wage slaves."

132 D. The pro slavery arguments of the South only widened the divide between the North (forward looking) and the South (backward looking), and the south became intolerant of any dissent Anti-slavery reformers sent piles of petitions to Congress, so in retaliation, Southerners drove a "gag resolution" through Congress in 1836 All antislavery appeals in Congress to be ended without debate; antislavery petitions also prohibited -- Seen by northerners as a threat to the 1st Amendment Rep. John Quincy. Adams waged a successful 8-year fight against it; repealed in 1844

133 F. Southerners also resented the amount of anti-slavery propaganda that was flooding their mails
Blacks couldn’t usually read, but they could interpret the incendiary drawings (like masters knocking out the teeth of their salves with clubs) In 1835, a mob in Charleston, South Carolina looted a post office and burned a pile of abolitionist propaganda Washington government capitulated to Southern pressure Ordered southern postmasters to destroy abolitionist materials Ordered state officials to arrest federal postmasters who did not comply

134 XXII. The Abolitionist Impact in the North
Abolitionists were not very popular in the North, and this was especially true of the extreme ones like William Lloyd Garrison and his followers Most Northerners had great respect for the Constitution, and Garrison’s talk of secession upset many Northerners The North also had a large economic stake in the South ---By late 1850s, Southern planters owed Northern bankers and other creditors lots of money ($300 million), which would be lost should the Union dissolve ---Northern (New England) textile mills depended on cotton from the South ---Thus North and South were tied together, and the antics of Garrison and his followers were threatening

135 The need of Northern factories for Southern cotton created an alliance between “the lords of the lash and the lords of the loom.”

136 B. Rabble-rousing by abolitionists in the North provoked many mob outbursts in the North
gang broke into New York home of Louis Tappan in demolished interior while a crowd on the street cheered Garrison was dragged through the streets of Boston with a rope tied around him by Broadcloth Mob --- Garrison escaped Reverend Elijah Lovejoy of Alton, Illinois was the militant editor of antislavery newspaper in Illinois Also impugned (assailed by words or arguments, attacked) the chastity (purity) of Catholic women His printing press was destroyed 4 times---the 4th time (1837) press thrown into a river and Lovejoy was killed by a mob who promptly burned his warehouse Became an abolitionist martyr

137 C. Nevertheless, by 1850, abolitionist outcry had made its impact on the minds of the Northerners
Many Northerners came to see the South as land of the unfree and oppression Not many Northerners proposed the outright abolition of slavery, but many wanted to make sure it did not spread into the Western territories --- hence the name “free soilers” D. Eventually, most abolitionists (including pacifist Garrison) would support the Civil War to end slavery


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