Presentation on theme: "INDIA Presentation Power Up! -A just energy transition for the South."— Presentation transcript:
INDIA Presentation Power Up! -A just energy transition for the South
Outline Quick facts Indias unique position BUT – window is closing fast Policy Gaps Role of civil society Experiences on decentralised options- partner presentations 2
Country background Second largest population 29 states - 23 official languages 10 th largest economy -2011 But.. Growing inequity Source: WEO,2011
energy Scenario -Coal dominates, -Bio-mass -non commercial, mainly for cooking Source : Prayas
QUICK FACTS- INSTALLED CAPACITY FuelMW%age Total Thermal153847.9968.14 Coal 1,32,288.3958.59 Gas 20,359.859.02 Oil 1,199.750.53 Hydro (Renew able) 39,623.4017.55 Nuclear4,780.002.12 RES** (MNRE)27,541.7112.2 Total2,25,793.10100 SHP= Small Hydro Project,BG= Biomass Gasifier,BP= Biomass Power, U & I=Urban & Industrial Waste Power, RES=Renewable Energy Sources ( May 2013) www.powermin.nic.in
QUICK FACTS CONTD…. 35.5% of the population - without access to electricity. 800 million Indians use traditional fuels fuelwood, agricultural waste and biomass cakes Kerosene also being used as the main source of lighting in rural areas, as a cooking fuel.
World Health Organisation, claim 300,000 to 400,000 people in India die of indoor air pollution ( IAP) and carbon monoxide poisoning every year because of biomass burning and use of chullahs Less than 30% use clean energy for cooking (Source: Green stoves to replace Chullahs, 2009)
Power outages range from 2-20 hours on a daily basis, and 14-16 hours in rural areas Highest in the world in terms of T& D Big gap between urban and rural electricity and energy infrastructure - centralized grid supply being the main source of electricity supply Theft and illegal tapping Subsidies- misused; poorly targeted Electricity supply is on average 10 percent short of demand (Central Electricity Authority, 2011) Illegally Tapping into the Power Line QUICK FACTS CONTD.. ELECTRICITY SCENARIO
Rural Electrification Definition is itself a problem! Govt data says that 32464 out of 593015 villages are unelectrified ( 5.47%) Only 8 out of a total of 29 states of India can boast of 100% village electrification, with only 11 states having less than 10% un-electrified villages and with 4 of the large states having more than 40% un-electrified villages Over 54% of the households in India yet to be electrified and 95% of them are in rural areas Only 3 states of India have less than 25% of households with no electricity access, while the remaining 26 states have un-electrified households ranging from 25 to as high as 90 percent (http://www.cea.nic.in/reports/monthly/dpd_div_rep/village_electrification.pdf.
Indias per-capita electricity consumption is less than one-fifth of the world average of 2,596 kWh. Approx. 1 USA (40 Cr) without access to electricity Approx. 1 Africa (100 Cr) living on less than 100 kWh /household/month LIMITED ACCESS TO ENERGY
Players in Indias electricity sector Central and State regulate electricity sector Contribution of pvt parties sharply increasing (73% (514,000 MW) of in- pipeline capacity in private sector In 2010, the five largest power companies in India, by installed capacity, were the state-owned NTPC, state-owned NHPC, followed by three privately owned companies: Tata Power, Reliance Power and Adani Power
Annual electricity generation capacity about 66 GW in 1991 to over 100 GW in 2001, to over 199 GW in 2012 ( 3.5 times over 20 years).Another 100 GW by 2017. Clearances accorded for 1,92,913 MW of coal and gas plants 508907 MW at various stages of clearance cycle Total of 701820 MW- awaiting to be built Coming up in critically polluted areas/ fertile lands For whom is this power generated? Can we assume that this will improve access and availability to energy for livelihood for the marginalized majority of India? MASSIVE EXPANSION OF THERMAL CAPACITY ON THE CARDS!
Comparative Map of India with Thermal Power Plants and level of household electrification
SOME MIND NUMBING FIGURES!! Source: ToI, May 2012
Can we sustain a continuation of past trends of energy use ? 15 Energy security: Where will all the coal and oil come from? Infrastructure: How will all this energy be transported/handle d? Environment: What will be the implications on local and global environment? Land & water issues? Source: TERI
Indias energy Challenge In next 12 years Indias electricity requirement to grow 2.5 times/ commercial demand by 72% over 10 years Electricity shortage estimated at 25- 35 GW 400 Million people still without access to electricity India is dependent on oil imports / coal imports -30% Growing pressure to Address emissions/ 25% reduction in energy intensity
17 Half the households do not have pucca houses, toilets, basic health care One-fourth villages have no proper road access, one-fifth no primary school Source: Census, NSSO, PM Sadak Yojana, Prayas estimates Energy and infrastructure deficit and inequity
What do the RE Nos Say? http://data.gov.in/dataset/estimated-renewable- energy-potential JNN solar mission -20 GW By 2020- achieved 398 MW by July 2013 National wind energy mission- 12 th plan Wind to be the largest contributor to Indias target of 15% renewable by 2020
National Electricity Policy, 2005 National Tariff Policy, 2006 (RPOs were recommended by State Regulators) National Action Plan on Climate Change, 15% RE by 2020 JLN SM Some new and welcome regulations such as Generation Based Incentives for wind, Trading of RE certificates, Clean Energy fund, Production Tax credits etc Policies Specific to Renewable Energy
INTERNATIONAL COMPARISON OF POLICIES FOR RE India has almost all the policies that are required for massive renewable energy promotion (in theory) Count ries Renew able Purcha se Obligat ion RE Certific ate Trading Feed in Tariff Invest ment Tax credit Produc tion Tax Credit Subsidi es Tax Holiday s Legislat ive Suppor t (RE Law) Finacial Assista nce India USA Germa ny China Ranking: India is fourth amongst the four countries in generation in absolute numbers or quantum but has all the required policies but unfortunately numbers dont tell the story!
What is Lacking????? Our policies are not consistent and contradict each other The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy has not realised the full Renewable Energy Potentials for India Delusion of Coal being eternal National Action Plan on Climate Change targets 15% Renewable Energy by 2020, while the Integrated Energy Policy looks at a maximum of 6.5% of Renewable Energy by 2031 The Industry estimates of RE potentials are far higher 60% of our coal fired power plants are running below capacity due to lack of availability of coal
OTHER INCONSISTENCIES OR CONTRADICTIONS OF POLICIES IEP: Demand Forecasting on the basis of GDP and the estimated demand for electricity in 2030-31 – 800,000 MW Efficiency saving potential estimated by the IEP is in the region of 15% Very little emphasis on Decentralised Renewables NAPCC makes mention of a sustainable Electricity Conspn. Prayas study estimates a electricity saving potential of 30% in the domestic sector alone Renewable Electricity investment to the tune of of 20,000 Cr has been made in 2011-2012. ( LARGE PROJECTS) The Solar Mission mentions very high roof top Rural electrification-
22/29 states fail to meet renewable Purchase Obligations ( RPO)* Other implementation issues relate to coordination between the Centre-State-Municipal bodies Poor policy enforcement- no penal measure; lack of accountability Technical and financial support for the policy implementation poor giving Utilities the room to wriggle out of fulfilling their obligation *Powering Ahead on Renewables: Leaders and Laggards ( 2012) IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES
Demand to put an immediate moratorium on any further environmental clearances to thermal power plants. -Awaiting EC, Granted TOR or Awaiting TOR GO –NO GO Zones for coal mining Serve as a watchdog for projects already cleared Initiate a transparent deliberative process to revamp EIA. Equity should be the point of departure Advocacy Energy Efficiencies in Transport ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY
Vigorous and effective implementation of policies that are already in place should be taken up along with significant deployment of new technologies and increased innovation. Create models of decentralized energy production systems at the grassroots –off grid Come up with Creative ways of taxing the elite- overconsumption line Thrust of getting local -relook at the production distribution system ROLE OF THE CIVIL SOCIETY
Girls from the Jalka village, Maharashtra enjoy the shade under the solar panels that power the fans in their school YOU!